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Test 2 study guide for BIO1202 (scored 92%)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1202
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter Learning ObjectivesChapter 27 ProkaryotesConcept 271 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic successDescribe the structure and function of each of the following prokaryotic featuresoCapsule a sticky layer of polysccharides or proteins that covers the cell wall of many prokaryotes The capsule enables prokaryotes to adhere to their substrates or to other individuals to form colonies Some protect against dehydration while others shield the prokaryotes from their hosts immune systemoFimbria used by some prokaryotes to attach to their substrates or one anotheroSex pilus appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to the otheroNucleoid the location where prokaryotes store their circular chromosome of DNA it appears lighter than the rest of the cytoplasm in electron micrographsoPlasmid much smaller rings of separately replicating DNA in prokaryotes each of which only carry a few genesoFlagellum a structure associated with prokaryotic motility they may be located over the entire cell or at one or both ends They differ from eukaryotic flagella by ways of molecular composition and mechanisms of propulsionDescribe the structure composition and functions of prokaryotic cell wallsComposition Archaeal cell walls are made of polysaccharides and proteins but lack peptidoglycans The composition of bacterial cell walls includes peptidoglycans modifiedsugar polymers bound together by short polypeptidesFurthermore there are two bacterial cell wall classifications grampositive and gramnegative Grampositive walls are simpler and contain more peptidoglycan They dont have an outer membrane On the other hand gramnegative walls are more complex containing less peptidoglycan but adding an outer membrane of lipopolysccharidesStructure Prokaryotic cell walls are complete with capsules flagellum and sex piliFunctions Cell walls serve the purposes of maintaining cell shape providing physical protection and the cell from bursting in hypotonic environmentsExplain how the organization of prokaryotic genomes differs from that of eukaryotic genomesThe genome of prokaryotes differs from eukaryotes in that they contain less DNA and they are organized into circular loops not the eukaryotic lines They do not have a membranebound nucleus however they do have a Nucleoid region Prokaryotes have additional DNA found in much smaller loops called plasmids Translation and transcription are fundamentally the same though prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller than those in eukaryotes and differ in their protein and RNA content Concept 272 Rapid reproduction mutation and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotesList three factors that give rise to high levels of genetic diversity in prokaryotesThree factors that give rise to high levels of genetic diversity in prokaryotes are rapid reproduction mutation and genetic recombinationDescribe three processes that produce recombinant DNA in prokaryotesTransformation the change of genotype andor phenotype from the assimilation of new DNA into the cellTransduction A type of horizontal gene transfer in which phages viruses carry bacterial DNA from one host cell to anotherConjugation The transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joinedConcept 273 Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes
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