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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Biology 1202 1212011 33800 PM Chapter 10 17 Gene Expression and RegulationHow are genes and Proteins relatedHow do we go from genes to physical structureGenes Determine protein structureProtein structure determines the way the processes of life are carried outHow are genes and proteins relatedGeneRNA to make proteinGene segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosomeDNA codes for specific AA sequence in a protein or for the RNA that helps make proteinsDNA vs RNA Table 101DNA o Double stranded o DeoxyriboseRNA o Single Stranded o RiboseThree Types of RNA Figure 102mRNArRNA o Large subunit o Small subunit o Catalytic SiteTransfer RNA tRNA o AnticodonInformation flow DNARNAHow is Information in a gene Transcribed into RNATranscription Four StepsChromosome o Initiation o Elongation o Termination o New RNA formedRNA polymerase requires a DNA TemplateDNA polymerase reads DNA and makes DNAHow is the sequence of Messenger RNA molecule translate into proteinLanguage BarrierNucleic Acids o DNA 4 nucleotides o RNA 4 nucleotidesProteins 20 amino acidsGenetic CodeCodon o Triplet of nucleotides o Codes for one specific amino acidThe Genetic Code TableTranslationAka Protein Synthesis o RequirementsmRNArRNAtRNAAmino acidsATPTranslation Initiation 1 Fig 176atRNA secondary structure of DNABegin with MethionineInitiation 2 Figure 176bRibosomal subunit attaches to amino acidsStarts the frame in which sequence will be read Initiation 3Catalytic siteSecond Binding siteLarge ribosomal subunit Elongation 1Catalytic site Elongation 2Peptide bond forms with the help of ATP Elongation 3tRNA is either used or releasedElongation 4 Elongation 5Primary level of structure Terminationstop codonHomeostasis must be achieved in each cell or else the cell will dieComplementary Base Pairing Figure 177Complementary DNA Strand GC AT mRNA G C U AtRNA anticodonsProtein amino acids When we mutate the sequence we mutate the RNAHow do mutations of DNA affect the function of Genes proteinsMutationsAny change in the sequence of bases in DNA3 types o point mutation
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