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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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INSERT 4244 NOTES HEREPLANT SEXOther mechanisms used by bisexual flowers to avoid selffertilization oGenetic selfincompatibility gauged by Sgeneso5060 alleles diploid plant gets 2 allelesDEVELOPMENT OF THE SEED AND FRUITSingle diploid cell is called a zygoteThe first mitotic division of the zygote is asymmetric Figure 387Asymmetric division provides the first environmental difference experienced by the differentiating cells and establishes the rootshoot axisThe sporophyte multicellular diploid plant embryo develops from the zygoteThe endosperm develops from the triploid endosperm cellThe ovule integuments become the seed coatTissues of the ovary and sometimes the receptacle become the fruitFunction of fruit3 parts of plant embryooHypocotyl rootoEpicotyl shootoCotyledon seed leaves dicots have 2 monocots have 1CHAPTER 35 AND 3637Flowering plants 2 main groupsoMonocots seedlings have each 1 cotyledon seed leafoEudicots dicots seedlings each have 2 cotyledons seed leavesSee Figure 3013ORGAN SYSTEM OF FLOWERING PLANTSPart above the ground shoot systemPart below the ground root system Primary rootfirst to appear oEudicot taproot systemoMonocot fibrous root system Root hairs are extensions of epidermal cells oDramatically increase a roots surface area for absorbing water and nutrientsFood storageoFunction of all roots but some are highly modified for storageAboveground aerial or prop roots give extra supportBreathing roots conduct oxygen to waterlogged rootsEpiphytes are organisms that grow on the outside of other organismsThe roots of many orchids are photosynthetic SHOOT SYSTEMTwo purposes of a stem oHold up the plantoGrow up to outcompete other plants around you for sunlightStolons runners are horizontal wandering aboveground stems Rhizomes eg edible base of ginger plant are horizontal belowground stemsoTotipotent there are cells within it that are married and they would have full shoot systems if plantedTubers eg potatoes yams are the swollen ends of rhizomes specialized for food storageBulbs are vertical underground stems consisting mostly of the swollen bases of leaves specialized to store foodoOnion fibrous roots which make it monocot
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