Chapter 42 Learning Objectives (scored 92%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202

Chapter Learning ObjectivesChapter 42Concept 421 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the bodyExplain how a gastrovascular cavity functions in part as a circulatory systemoFunctions in the distribution of substances throughout the body and in digestionoAnimals inner and outer tissue layers facilitate exchange of gases and cellular waste nutrients can diffuse through tissue to cellsoPlanarians flatworms along with flat body can exchange with environmentDistinguish between open and closed circulatory systemsList the three basic components common to both systemsoThree basic components a circulatory fluid a set of interconnecting vesselsA muscular pump the heart oOpen circulatory systemCommon in anthropods and mollusksCirculatory system bathes the organs directlyCirculatory fluid hemolymph or interstitial fluid bathes cellsContraction of heart pumps hemolymph into interconnected sinuses and relaxation draws hemolymph back through the poresoClosed circulatory systemIncludes Annelids cephalopods and all vertebratesCirculatory fluid called blood is confined to vesselsHeart pumps blood into large vessels which move into smaller ones where chemical exchange occursLess costly in energy needed because lower hydrostatic pressureList the structural components of a vertebrate circulatory system and relate their structure to their functionoCalled cardiovascular systemoBlood vessels arteries capillaries and veinsoArteriesCarry blood away from the heart to organsArteries then branch into arteriolesArterioles small vessels that convey blood to capillariesoCapillariesMicroscopic vessels with thin porous wallsNetworks of these vessels are called capillary bedsCapillary beds infiltrate every tissue in the bodyoChemicals dissolved gases are exchanged by diffusion between blood and interstitial fluid around tissue
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