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Biology Exam 2 (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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1Chapter 26 PhylogenySystematicsIClassifications 16aBoundaries between units in the Geologic Time Scale are marked by dramatic biotic changeb5 Kingdom classification system in use through the late 1900s gave way to Woeses 3 Domainsmultiple KingdomscTaxon taxathe named taxonomic units at any level in this taxonomic hierarchyiDid King Philip Come Over For Gumbo Sunday Panther1Domain Eukarya2Kingdom Animalia3Phylum Chordata4Class Mammalia5Order Carnivora6Family Felidae7Genus Panthera8Species Panthera pardusiiPanthera genus pardus specific epithet that refers to one species in the genus PantheraiiiEach taxonomic level is more inclusive or comprehensive than the previous one moving from species toward domainsdLinnaeus convinced us to use a hierarchical classification systemDarwin provided us with the mechanism by which evolution results in descent with modificationThese contributions combine in the modern brancheseTaxonomynamingclassifying organismsfSystematic PhylogeneticsiSystematicsnamingclassifying organisms according to their evolutionary relationshipsiiPhylogeneticsreconstructing the evolutionary relationships among organismsIIMacroevolutionPhylogeny 621aPhylogenetic treehypothesized genealogy traced back to the last common ancestor ie the most recent through hierarchical dichotomous branchingbCladisticsthe principles that guide the production of phylogenetic trees aka cladogramscNodebranch point speciation eventdLinage or cladean entire brancheCladea monophyletic group ie an ancestral speciesall of its descendants2fParaphyletic groupconsists of an ancestorsome of its descendantsIt lacks the common ancestor of species in the groupgTaxonomic groups often reflect true cladeshTension sometimes exists between taxonomic traditioncladistics hypothesisiThe fossil record is especially valuablethe only option for many extinct taxaWe almost never have a continuous record from one species to the nextCladistic principles allow us to construct hypothesized phylogenetic treesIIICladistic Analysis 2235aFossils provide morphological data for extinct species whereas comparisons of multiple types of traits including molecular do so for extant speciesbSimilar characteristics suggest relatednesscNot all similarity derives from common ancestrydConvergent evolutioncan produce superficially similar traits that lack homology with one anothereHomologous charactersshare common ancestryiLack of similarity among taxa results from divergencefAnalogous charactersdo not share common ancestryiSimilarity among taxa results from convergencegAs a general rule the more homologous characters shared by 2 species the more closely they are relatedhSequences of DNARNA nucleotidesproteins amino acids are used as characters as a general rule the more recently two species shared a common ancestor the more similar their sequenceiEach nucleotide can be treated as a characterjCharacter changes mutations from ancestral to the derived state includeiSubstitutionsiiInsertionsiiiDeletionskThe sequence of branching in a cladogram then represents the sequence in which evolutionary novelties shared derived characters evolved 29lIngroup vs OutgroupiIngroupthe group whose relationship we are trying to resolve 30iiOutgroupa species or group known to have an older most recent common ancestor with the ingroup than the ingroups most recent common ancestor 311Helps identify shared ancestralshared derived characters unique to a clademThe most parsimonious tree is the one that requires the fewest evolutionary events appearance of shared derived charactersEach key character originated evolved once 34n35oSometimes the most parsimonious arrangement for one character is not the most accurate overallp3740qContinental drift is responsible for many biogeographic distribution patterns eg Proteaceae a plant family that originated in GondwanarContinental drift results from plate tectonics
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