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Notes For Exam 2 (chapters 24 26 27 Influenza And 43)(highest grade in class)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1202
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
KristensBiology1202NotesChapter2404062011CHAPTER24ORIGINOFSPECIESMacroevolutionevolutionarychangeabovethespecieslevelincludingtheoriginofanewgroupoforganismsorashiftinthebroadpatternofevolutionarychangeoveralongperiodoftimeExamplesofMacroevolutionAppearanceofmajornewfeaturesoforganismsTheimpactofmassextinctionsonthediversityoflifeanditssubsequentrecoveryMicroevolutionEvolutionarychangebelowthespecieslevelchangeintheallelefrequenciesinapopulationovergenerationsDarwins2mainpointsinOriginofSpeciesEvolutionoccursinpopulationsNaturalSelectionismechanismforevolutionBiologicalSpeciesConceptApopulationwhosememberscanpotentiallyinterbreedinnaturetoproduceviableoffspringemphasisonreproductiveisolationOrganismsofthesamespeciesreproduceExceptionitMUSToccurNATURALLYinnatureLimitationsCANNOTbeappliedtoorganismsknownonlyasFOSSILSortoorganismsthatreproduceonlyASEXUALLYMorphologicalSpeciesConceptmostspecieshavebeenidentifiedonthebasisofphysicalcharacteristicsemphasisonanatomicaldifferencesEcologicalSpeciesConceptdefinesspeciesonthebasisoftheirecologicalroleintheenvironmentPhylogeneticSpeciesConceptsmallestgroupthatsharesacommonancestorasinglebranchonthetreeoflifeBreakdownofhoweventsleaduptomatingformembersofsamespeciesBothorganismsmustbeinphysicaldistanceofoneanotherBothorganismsmustbeinthesameplaceatthesametimeReproductiveBarriersisolatepopulationsfromoneanotherAcompletebarrierwouldresultinnogeneflowAnincompletebarrierwouldreducegeneflowTypesofReproductivebarriersPrezygoticbarriersimpedematingorhinderfertilizationofmatingHabitatBehavioraltemporalmechanicalandgameticTypesofprezygoticisolationsHabitatisolationtwospeciesthatoccupydifferenthabitatswillnottypicallymateGeographicandEcologicalExamplePeepersbreedinwoodlandpondsleopardfrogsbreedinswampsGeographicisolationdifferentspeciesneverinteractbecauseofdifferentgeographiclocationsEurasianspoonbillRoseatespoonbillSpeciesinNorthAmericaSpeciesinCentralAmericaSpeciesinMadagscarEcologicalisolationsamespecieswithdifferentecologiesdonotmateRhagoletispomonellaHawthornsapplesforovipositionBehavioralisolationmatechoicebybehavioraldifferencesExampleTwosimilarspeciesofbirdshavedifferentmatingritualsGalapagosislandsBluefootedboobiesRedfootedboobyThesebirdsdonotmatebecausetheybehavedifferentlyAustraliaSatinBowerbirdsandtheirbowersToothbilledcatbirdsleafdisplayAgaintheydonotmatebecausetheybehavedifferentlyTemporalisolationspeciesareatsameplaceatsametimebutbreedindifferentcyclessotheydonotmateExampleTwospeciesofshortlivedmayfliesemergeduringdifferentweeksinspringEasternspottedskunkWesternspottedskunkMechanicalisolationHavetohavetherightmechanismtodeliverspermtoeggMatingisattemptedbutmorphologicaldifferencespreventitssuccessfulcompletionExampleThegenitalopeningsoftwospeciesoflandsnailscannotlineupbecausetheirshellsspiralinoppositedirectionsGameticisolationSpermofonespeciesmaynotbeabletofertilizetheeggsofanotherspeciesExampleTwospeciesofseaurchinsreleasegametesatthesametimebutthespermfailtofusewitheggsofadifferentspeciesPostzygoticBarriersPreventahybridzygotefromdevelopingintoaviablefertileadultReducedhybridviabilityReducedhybridfertilityandhybridbreakdownTypesofpostzygoticbarriersReducedhybridviabilitythegenesofdifferentparentspeciesmayinteractinwaysthatimpairthehybridsdevelopmentorsurvivalinitsenvironmentExampleEmbryosoftwospeciesofmicebredinthelabusuallyabortLioncrossedwithatigersterilebabymostofthetimeHorsecrossedwithadonkeysterilebabyWhyarethesehybridsnotaspeciesBecausetheycannotreproduceanythingelsewithamateTheyhaveunevenpairingofchromosomesduringmeiosisbecauseofdifferentchromosomenumbersReducedhybridfertilityevenifhybridsarevigoroustheymaybesterileIfthechromosomesofthetwoparentspeciesdifferinnumberorstructuremeiosisinthehybridsmayfailtoproducenormalgametesSincetheinfertilehybridscannotproduceoffspringwhentheymatewitheitherparentspeciesgenescannotflowfreelybetweenthespeciesExampleTwospeciesoffrogsmateinalaboratorysetupandproduceviablebutsterileoffspringExtremehybridsterilityHybridBreakdownSomefirstgenerationhybridsareviableandfertilebutwhentheymatewithoneanotherorwitheitherparentspeciesoffspringofthenextgenerationarenotfeebleorsterileReducedviabilityorfertilityoccursintheoffspringofhybrids
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