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BIOL 1202 EXAM 2 (26-28) (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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1Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of LifePhylogeny and the Tree of LifeThe discipline of systematics classifies organisms based on shared relationshipsSystematics the analytical study of the diversity and relationships or organisms both present day and extinctIf you organize things in the right way you get power of inferenceHuman natureorganize things to make a situation where things are easy to deal withEx Grocery storeorganized for shoppers and stockersPower of inference if the relationship between the things has some meaning above and beyond just looking alike fundamental level you can use that to your advantage if you know something about the fundamental aspect of one things means that you some fundamentals about the otherSystematists use fossil molecular and genetic data to infer these relationshipsOrganizing or grouping things helps in dealing with themExample Grocery store or your closetThe same idea holds true for the study of lifeIf organisms or any items are to be grouped then they need a nameIn biology this begins with taxonomy Taxonomy the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of lifeNeed to be working with the same name then put each organism into each classification spotAristotlewe need to come up with a mechanism of grouping thingsThe origins of taxonomy date back to AristotleThere are many ways that organisms may be groupedPlants verses animalsOne of the early classification systems placed the animals in one group and the plants in anotherThe bacteria fungi and many protists were considered plants while some of the protists were grouped with the animalsWithin the bigger levels had to develop smaller levelsWhy Makes it easier to deal with all the organismsSystematics is an inexact processDont describe categories well enough you end up with grey areas dont know where organisms belong Over time grey areas start to cause problemsDont have enough categories organism doesnt get categoryAll grouping methods are subject to interpretation by different opinions2Have to make sure definition of category is well thought outAll grouping methods are subject to problemsObvious issue lots of other things that dont fit into either plants or animalsEx BacteriaPlants vs animals was an imperfect system and as a result didnt lastbut wasnt a bad first stepNEED A DIFFERENT SETUPThe foundation for modern classification binomial nomenclature was developed by Linnaeus in the 1700sTwo names first and last nameBinomial nomenclatureThe two names relate directly to the classification scheme that will be developedalready sorta in place that related to idea of big sets broken up to smaller sets broken up in smaller steps Linnaeus organized itbuild a hierarchy Linnaeus also developed a scheme where organisms are classified or grouped into categoriesThese categories are further divided into smaller and smaller groupings creating an organizational hierarchy see fig 263The lowest two categories of the taxonomic hierarchy genus and species make up the scientific name for an organism binomial nomenclatureExample Homo sapiensSpecies name not genus usually given by the person who discovers the organism or where it was discoveredThe genus name is capitalized and the species name begins with a lowercase letterThe scientific name is usually underlined or italicizedOrganism name Species cant be subdividedsmallest biological unitThe major taxonomic categories from most inclusive biggest set to least inclusive smallest set areDomainthis one was added later see belowKingdomPhylumDivisionClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciessmallest only one kind of organism in groupUse a phrase mnemonic device to help you remember the order of these categories Do Knowledgeable Political Candidates Often Forget General SubjectsMany criteria are used by biologists to group organisms Morphology size shape structureAnatomy organs tissuesDevelopmental stage compare the embryos Cell structure chromosome number and structure
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