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FINAL EXAM NOTES (aced the test and got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202

FINAL EXAM NOTESCHAPTER 42Circulation and gas exchange 421 circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cell throughout the bodyTransport systems functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cells Gastrovascular cavitiesSimple animals like cnidarians have a body wall one 2 cell layers thick between external environment and gastrovascular cavityGastrovascular cavity functions both in digestion and circulation More complex animals have 2 types of circulatory systemsOpen circulatory system blood bathes the organs directlyoEg Arthropods and most molluscsoAllows blood and interstitial fluid to mix with each other Closed circulatory system blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid oSome invertebrates and all vertebrates Circulatory system partsBoth of these types of systems have three basic components 1A circulatory fluid blood2A set of tubes blood vessels3A muscular pump heartVertebrate circulatory system figure 424 5Concept 422 coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals The mammalian cardiovascular system figure 426The cardiac cycleCardiac cycle rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heartSystole contraction or pumping phaseDiastole relaxation or filling phase Electrical impulses coordinate the cardiac cycleThe pacemaker cellsoHeart cells that regularly produce spontaneous electrical impulsesoImpulses spread throughout heart muscle cells and stimulates them to contract The control of heart rhythm Sinoatrial SA node primary pacemakerGap junction between cardiac muscle cells allow impulses to travel along atrial cellsAtrioventricular AV node second pacemaker cell cluster Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the left atrium Concept 423 patterns of blood flow pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels Blood flow away from the heart
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