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Bio 1202 Exam 3 Notes (98% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Bio Exam 3 NotesThis Info will be on exam 2Pollinationthe movement of pollen from male to female part of the flowerCoevolutionspecies have evolved to depend on each other Butterflies have long tongues that allow it to reach the base of the flower to pick up pollenMagnolia flowersmells really sweet to attract nocturnal pollinators such as batsBeetlespollinators that eat the pollen Orchidsgive off pheromones that attract male wasps Plant Reproduction and DevelopmentPlant is made up of 2 parts1Root Systempart below the ground2Shoot Systemleaves stem and flower the part we see above groundAsexual ReproductionDone by fragmentationpart of the flower falls off and another grows from iteither naturally runners or artificially clippingsLeads to offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant Choose asexual reproduction when conditions are favorable Sexual ReproductionCombines genes from 2 different parents which makes the offspring genetically different Evolution of FlowersPlants came to land before animalsAbout 130150 mill yrs ago that flowers evolved from gymnosporesGymnospores earliest seed plantsoOnly need wind to move them around oWind pollination was used for fertilization Advantagethey dont any biological helpDisadvantagean inefficient processoSome attract insects to move pollen around oInsects started carrying pollen grains from male to female plants about 150 myaoWhyPlants entices the insects with food in the form of pollen protein rich and female cones sugar richAngiosperms oFlowering plants oDeveloped about 130 mya oFlowers attracted pollinators Flower StructureParts evolved from leaves Complete flower has 4 partsoSepals Sometimes colored attractors oPetals colored patterned to attract oStamen male reproductive parts composed of the anther and filament oCarpels female reproductive parts composed of the stigma style and ovaryIncomplete flower lack one or more of these structuresCoevolution of flowers and pollinators Wind pollinated flowers are inconspicuous and unscented they produce LOTS of pollen hitormiss strategy oThis group producers LOTS of pollen because its a low probability of a hit for an individual pollen grain oaks and maplesAnimal pollinated flowers have modifications in order tooAttract pollinators using color and scent oStop unwanted visitors using physical modifications ex tubes that only specific pollinators can accessoEnsure pollination is the goal What bees see and humans see is sometimes very different oBees see ultraviolet end of the spectrum blue violetAngiosperm gametophyte development Gametophyte are haploid and developdevelop inside sporophyte flowers very small and parasitic cant live on their ownpollen grains are the male gametophyteopollen grains develop within the sac and result in 2 spermsEmbryo sac is the female gametophyte which produces the egg cellsoSac development results in 7 cells1 egg cell1 primary endosperm cell with 2 nuclei5 cells that degeneratePollination and Fertilization 1Pollen lands on carpel this is when pollination starts2Tube grows from pollen down through carpel32 sperms go down the tube to the egg for double fertilizationaOne sperm fertilizes the egg to form a diploid zygote a true zygote that will become an embryobThe other sperm fertilizes primary endosperm cell to form triploid tissueo This is the unlucky sperm because it becomes the food for the developing embryoAfter fertilization the zygote will develop into the seed plant embryo which will grow into a new sporophyte parentOther mechanisms used by bisexual flowers to avoid selffertilizationGenetic selfincompatibility is gauged by Sgenes 5060 alleles diploid plant gets 2 alleles
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