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Bio Exam 3 Learning Objectives (aced the test and got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Chapter Learning ObjectivesChapter 37 Soil and Plant NutritionConcept 371 Soil is a living finite resourceDefine soil texture and soil compositionoSoil texture depends on the size of its particlesCan range from coarse sand to silt to microscopic clay particlesoSoil composition encompasses its inorganic mineral and organic componentsOrganic components include the many lifeforms that inhabit the soilExplain how soil is formedoArises from the weathering of rockoWater freezing in the crevices of rocks causes mechanical fracturingWeak acids in the soil break down the rocks chemicallyoMineral particles released by weathering become mixed with organisms and humusForms topsoilName the components of topsoiloInorganic componentsPositively charged ions22K Ca MgoOrganic componentsHumusThe remains of dead organisms and other organic matterOrganisms living in the soil itselfExplain why plants cannot extract all of the water in soiloAfter rains smaller spaces in the soil retain water because of Hbonding with clay and other particlesoFilm of looselybound water is available to plant rootsExplain how the presence of clay in soil helps prevent the leaching of mineral cationsoRemoval of nutrients from soil by water that percolates through itMost pronounced in sandy soilsClays are best at holding onto nutrientsDefine cation exchange explain why it is necessary for plant nutrition and describe how plants stimulate the processoCation ExchangeMineral cations are displaced from the soil particles by other cations particularly H and enter the soil solution which is then absorbed by root hairsoRoots are unable to absorb mineral cations directly from soil particles
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