Chapter 23 (Got A+ on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Chapter 23 The Evolution of PopulationsJanuary 25 2010The Smallest Unit of Evolution1One common misconception about evolution is that individual organisms evolve during their lifetime2Evolutionary processes eg natural selection acts on individuals but populations evolvePopulations1Population a localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring2Figure 235Concept 231 Mutation and sexual recombination produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possibleMutations1Mutations changes in nucleotide sequence of DNAaSource of new alleles and genes2Point mutation change in one nucleotide base in a gene3Chromosomal mutations delete disrupt or rearrange many loci on a chromosome4Gene duplications duplication of whole segments of a chromosome5Mutation rates averages 1 in every 100000 genes per generationSexual Recombination1In sexual reproducing organisms sexual recombination produces most of the variability in each generationVariation within a Population1Discrete characters classified on a eitherorbasisaEg flower color in pea plants2Quantitative characters vary along a continuum within a populationaEg height weightConcept 232 the HardyWeinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving
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