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Final Exam Study Guide (got 94% in the course)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Study Guide for Comprehensive Portion of the Final ExamBIOL 1202 Spring 2014Chapter 22Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Darwin and Wallace ie natural selectionNatural selection a process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits Define evolutionEvolution decent with modification and has 2 main ideas1Change over time of the genetic composition of a population2Decent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting organisms Chapter 23Explain the statement It is the population not the individual that evolvesNatural selection or evolutionary processes act on individuals but not just one individual evolves the whole population evolves because the best traits keep getting passed on to the populationList the five conditions that must be met for a population to remain in HardyWeinberg equilibrium see page 475The five conditions are1No mutations2Random mating3No natural selection4Extremely large population size 5No gene flowDescribe the significance of mutation in the generation of genetic variabilityMutation is significant in the genetic variability because it can change nucleotide sequences or duplicate genes which gives a population a chance to evolve if the mutation is favorable Explain the role of population size in genetic driftThe smaller the population size the greater the chance for genetic drift because there is a greater chance of deviation or change from a predicted result With small population sizes allele frequencies can fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next Distinguish among directional disruptive and stabilizing selection See Figure 2313Directional selection shifts the overall makeup of the population to one size or the other based on which trait is more favorable Disruptive selection favors variants of both ends and sides of the graph saying most of the population is the mix or intermediate breed
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