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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I How Plants Colonized LandCharophyceans have been identified as the closest relatives of land plantsfigure 293Genetic evidenceComparisons of nuclear and chloroplast genes point to close relationship between charophytes and land plantsThe Move to LandDurable polymer sporopollenin tough outer covering of spores and pollen found in charophyceans and land plantsoPrevents spores from drying outGreat opportunity for adaptive radiationoSunlight unfiltered by water and planktonoAbundance of CO2oNutrientrich soiloFew herbivorespathogensFour key traits in nearly all land plants1Alternation of generations and multicellular dependent embryos2Apical meristems3Walled spores produced in sporangia keep them from drying out4Multicellulargametangia1Relationships Among Plant GroupsFigure 297In the diagram which box represents reduction division from a diploid state to a haploid statebox A because spores undergo meiosisConcept 292 Mosses and other nonvascular plants Bryophytes have life cycles dominated by gametophytesBryophytes are represented today by three phyla of small herbaceous nonwoody plantsoLiverwortsoHornwortsoMossesBryophyte Diversity Figure 299Bryophyte Gametophytes In all three bryophyte phyla gametophytes are the dominant stage of the life cycleProduce flagellated swim sperm in antheridia and ova in archegonia ofound near waterForm ground hugging carpets and are only a few cells thickBryophyte SporophytesConsist of a foot a seta and a sporangiumHornwort and moss sporophytes have stomataMoss Life Cycle2
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