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Bio Final Cumulative Notes

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Study Guide for Comprehensive Portion of the Final ExamBIOL 1202 Spring 2014Chapter 22Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Darwin and Wallace ie natural selectionoNatural selection process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traitsoAdaptations inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments2 ObservationsMembers of a population often vary in their inherited traitsAll species can produce more offspring than their environment can support and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduceDefine evolutionoChange in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generationNot individualsChapter 23Explain the statement It is the population not the individual that evolvesNatural selection acts on individuals but the evolutionary impact of natural selection is only apparent in the changes in a population of organismsList the five conditions that must be met for a population to remain in HardyWeinberg equilibrium see page 475No mutations Random matingNo natural selectionExtremely large population sizeNo gene flowDescribe the significance of mutation in the generation of genetic variabilityMutation change in the nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNAGives rise to new allelesExplain the role of population size in genetic driftChance events can cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next especially in small populationsDistinguish among directional disruptive and stabilizing selection See Figure 2313Directional selection conditions favor individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range thereby shifting the phenotypic character in one direction or the other
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