Diversity Host Microbe Interactions Immunology (Got A+ on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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Diversity1How old is the Earth45 billion years old2What is used to date the Earth to be that oldradioactive dating rocks3Evidence for microbial life are found in rocks that date back 386 billion years ago4What are stromatolitesAt what time during Earths history were all beaches likely covered in stromatolitesStromatolites fossilized microbial mats consisting of layers of filamentous prokaryotes and trapped sediment25 billion years ago5What event occurred between 2228 billion years agoWhat effects did it have on the planetWhat kind of microorganisms were involvedThe earths environment shifted from anoxic to oxicOxygenic phototrophic cyanobacteriaPresence of oxygen allowed aerobes to emerge6How did the banded iron formations formlayers of ferric Fe3 iron oxides formed by ferrous Fe2 iron reacting with oxygen produced by the cyanobacteria7Was the first cell prokaryotic or eukaryoticprokaryotic8What theory explains the origin of the eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplastEndosybiosis Theory9Forming the primitive mitochondria there was symbiotic uptake of a cell with what type of metabolism Aerobic Respiration10Forming the primitive chloroplast there was symbiotic uptake of what kind of cellAn oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacteria11Provide support for the mitochondria and chloroplasts having bacterial originsmitochondria and Chloroplastsohave their own genomesocontain their own ribosomes70s like prokaryotesantibiotics are effectiverRNA sequences are similar to prokaryotic rRNA Eukaryotic nuclear genome has bacterially derived sequences12Describe the hydrogen hypothesisaWhat organism was the host iArchaea Hydrogen consumingbWhich organisms were the symbiontsiBacteria Hydrogen producingiiCyanobacteria oxygenic phototrophcWhat did each symbiont allow the host to do metabolicallyiBacteria produced hydrogen which the Archaea used as and energy sourceiiCyanobacteria allowed Archaea to become photosyntheticdWhat metabolic terms autotroph heterotrophy phototroph chemoorganotroph chemolithotroph can be used to describe the host and each symbiontiArchaeaiiBacteria iiiCyanobacteria oxygenic phototroph13The sequence of what nucleic acid is compared to determine the evolutionary relationship between organismsSSU rRNA small subunito16S subunitprokaryoteso18S subuniteukaryotes14Phylogenetic trees represent what type of relationshipPhylogeny evolutionary relationships of organisms15Answer the following questions using the phylogenetic tree belowaTo which organism is B most closely relatedCbTo which organism is C most closely related DEcWhich organism is the most recent descent from the ancestor at internal node 2 BdWhich organism could be the outgroup A
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