Ch 15 And 16 (got the best grade in class)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

At this point pyruvate can either be usedin fermentation to form fermentation products alcohols acids gases Depends on in Respiration TCA cycle to be fully oxidized to carbon dioxideorganismFermentation vs RespirationFermentationfrom 1 glucose molecule a net of 2 ATP are produced partial oxidation of glucosereduction of pyruvatefermentation productsNADRespirationfrom 1 glucose molecule up to 38 ATP are produced complete oxidation of glucose to CO2oxidation of pyruvate by citric acid cycleuses electron transport systemATPaseFermentationDuring fermentation glycolysis occurs followed by fermentation reactions no TCA no ETCDuring glycolysis electrons from glucose are passed to 2 NAD creating 2 NADHIn fermentation electrons from NADH are passed to pyruvate regenerating NAD so glycolysis can continueIn this process glycolysis followed by fermentation reactions net gain of 2 ATP are made by substrate level phosphorylationFig 1321 start with pyruvic acid from glycolysisconverted to alcohol lactic acid propionic acid Swiss cheese isopropanol NADH is converted back to NAD in all those conversionsTypes of fermentation1 Homolactic fermentation once electrons from NADH are passed to pyruvate pyruvate is reduced to lactic acidEx Lactobacillus ferments lactose sugar in milk to produce lactic acid this gives us yogurt2 Alcoholic fermentation once electrons are passed from NADH to pyruvate pyruvate is reduced to alcohol CO2Ex Yeast ferment the sugar in malted grains to produce alcoholCO2 beer wine breadIn both types of fermentation the electron donor is glucoseelectron acceptor is pyruvate which is made from glucoseFermentation energy generating process where one organic compound exglucose serves as the electron donor and a product of that compound serves as the electron acceptor expyruvateRespirationSome chemoheterotrophs can use oxygen or other compounds from the environment to accept the electrons from NADHIf electron acceptor is oxygen process is called AEROBIC RESPIRATIONIf electron acceptor is other compound from environment process is called ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONfinal electron acceptor may be an inorganic compound such as nitrate ferric iron sulfate or carbonateIn fermentation the final electron acceptor is made by the cell from the electron donor ex Pyruvate is made from glucoseIn respiration the final electron acceptor is a compound found in the environment ex Oxygen nitrateThe Tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle respirationaka Krebs cycle citric acid cyclecyclic pathway used to fully oxidize organic materials such as acetyl CoAEnd productsATP small amountNADH and FADH2 importantused in ETCCO2 waste productPrecursor metabolites important cells need to make macromoleculesOccurs during respirationOxidizes pyruvate completely to CO2Only possible with inorganic electron acceptor oxygen nitrateRespiration produces more energy than fermentationPyruvate dehydrogenase complex PDCConverts pyruvate to acetylCoA by removing CO2 Substrate for TCA is acetyl CoA made by removing CO2 from pyruvate not pyruvatePrecursor metabolites made in TCA cycleAlphaketoglutarateoxaloacetate used to make amino acidsnucleotides
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