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Lab Final Study Guide (aced the test and got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

BIOL 2051Lab FinalSullivanGeneralThe Final exam is worth 100 pointsFormat3 sectionsoSection AYou will perform a test that is used to distinguish between different bacteriaYou have done this test at least once since midterm Experiment 21CATALASE Enzymesproteins that serve as biological catalystsSubstratethe lone substance that a particular enzyme can react withExtracellular enzymesact outside of the cell in which they are produced Degrade large enough molecules into units that are small enough to be transported across the cell membraneEndoenzymesact inside the cell to degrade molecules to simpler molecules releasing energy or synthesizing molecules that are neededInducibleadaptiveproduced only when the appropriate substrate is availableConstitutiveessential to the cell and produced at all timesMorphologycell size shape and arrangement of a bacteriumPhysiologyorganisms metabolic capabilities which tells how it functions in an environmentCatalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen which is observed in the production of bubblesProduced by all microorganisms that use oxygen for respirationStaphylococcus and positiveMicrococcusStreptococcus Lactococcus and EnterococcusnegativeResultsoPositiveproduction of bubblespresence of catalase enzymeoNegativeno bubblesabsence of catalase enzymeExperiment 22OXIDASE Made by organisms that produce energy using aerobic respiration including aerobes facultative anaerobes and microaerophilesCytochrome oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of a cytochrome and the following reduction of molecular oxygen to HO or 2HO 22Tetramethylpphenylenediamine dihydrochloride serves as artificial substrate to be oxidized by cytochrome oxidase in the presence of oxygen and will turn blue if oxidase is presentNeisseria Moraxella pseudomonads and VibrionaceaepositiveActinobacter and EnterobacteriaceaenegativeResultoPositiveorganism will turn bluepurple where the reagent was addedpresence of cytochrome oxidaseoNegativeorganism will have little or no color changeabsence of cytochrome oxidaseExperiment 23 Monosaccharidessingle sugars composed of five or six carbonsOligosaccharidesfew sugars composed of two or more monosaccharidesPolysaccharideslarger polymers of monosaccharides that serve as structural components or reserve carbon and energy sourcesAMYLASE oAmylase breaks down glycosidic bonds between glucose subunits in starch which is transported into cells for energyoGlycogena polymer of glucose that reserves energy for animal cellsoStarch a macromolecule of glucose molecules connected by an14 glycosidic bonds is mixed with a liquid growth medium and agar to produce a nutrient medium oIodine indicates the presence of starch by reacting and producing a brownblue coloroZone of hydrolysis will be evident around an amylaseproducing colony after flooding with iodineoResultPositiveclearing around and under the organismpresence of amylase producing organismNegativeno clearing around the organismabsence of amylase producing organismCELLULASE oCellulase is a decomposer of cellulose a polymer of glucose found in the soil and rotting woodoGlucose residues are joined by a14 glycosidic bond with up to 14000 glucose molecules in a single cellulose fibriloCan occur aerobically and anaerobicallyCytophaga and SporocytophagaaerobicClostridiumanaerobicoCaldocellulosiruptor is a thermophile that can degrade cellulose at high temperaturesoResultsmost yellow paper squarepaper was composed of most amount celluloseleast yellow paper squarepaper was composed of least amount of celluloseExperiment 24 1
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