Micro Chapter 7

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
All Professors

Chapter 7 Genomes and Chromosomes GeneticsMolecule of heredityDeoxyribonucleic acid DNAGeneSequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a proteinNucleotide sequence corresponds to sequence of amino acidsRNA serves as an intermediateThe three key processes of macromolecular synthesis are1DNA replicationmaking a copy of DNA2transcriptionsynthesis of RNA from a DNA template3translationsynthesis of proteins using messenger RNA as a templateCentral dogma of molecular biologyBasic processes are the same in prokaryoteseukaryotes but the organization of genetic information is more complex in eukaryotesMajor differencesEukaryotes chromosomes are linear intronsDNA sequences within genes that are not part of coding sequence for proteincontain huge amount of noncoding DNA In humans over 90 of the total DNA is noncoding enhancer sequences promoters remnants of viral genomesProkaryotesChromosomes are usually circularhave little noncoding DNA less than 15operons are commoncluster of genes controlled by 1 regulatory sequence genes are transcribed together into 1mRNA strand then translated into separate proteinsDNA is a doublestranded helix twisted ladderThe two strands in the double helix are antiparallel run in opposite directionsThe 2 DNA polynucleotide strands have base sequences that are complementary1
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