Chap 10 And 12 (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
All Professors

Selected topics from chapter 10 and 12Chapter 10 Molecular RegulationRegulating Gene ExpressionMicrobes respond to changing environmentAlter growth rateAlter proteins produced maybe there are proteins they dont need to makeMust sense their environmentReceptors on cell surfaceMust transmit information to chromosomeAlter gene expressionChange transcription rateChange translation rateSensing the EnvironmentTwocomponent signal transduction system1 Sensor kinase protein in CMBinds to signalFoodChemical cueActivates itself via phosphorylation2 Cytoplasmic response regulatorTakes phosphate from sensorBinds chromosomeAlters transcription rate of multiple genesAltering Transcription Ratessigma factor guides RNA polymerase to initiate transcription at promoterproteins can help guide sigma factor to promoteractivatorbinds to DNA sites next to promoteincreases frequency of that genes transcriptionproteins can block sigma factor from bindingrepressorBinds to DNA sites next to promoterooperatorLowers frequency of that genes transcriptionThe amount of an enzyme in the cell can be controlled by decreasing repression or increasing induction the amount of mRNA that encodes the enzyme For negative control of transcription the regulatory molecule is called a Repressor protein and it functions by inhibiting mRNA synthesis The E coli lac Operon
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