Chapter 24 (got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

Chapter 24 The Adaptive Immune ResponseRecommended reading Chapter 241244 246 248Immunity ability of an organism to resist infection All cells involved in immunity originate from common stem cells in bone marrowImmune system protects against foreign cellsmacromolecules ex toxinsAntigenImmunogen foreign cells or macromolecules that induce immune systemTypes of Immunity1 Naturally acquired immunity2 Artificially acquired immunity Naturally acquired immunityCan be classified as active or passiveNaturally acquired active immunityHost produces antibodiesT cells in response to an infectionImmunity can last for years or lifetimeNaturally acquired passive immunityOccurs when antibodies are passed from one host to anotherEx Antibodies pass through placenta from mother to fetusThese circulate in infants system for several months after birthLasts few weeks to monthsArtificially acquired immunityCan be classified as active or passive immunityArtificially acquired active immunityResult of vaccinationHost makes antibodies that can last for yearsVaccinationsImmunizationsTo reduce risks vaccines contain inactivated pathogens or their productsToxoidchemically modified exotoxin retains antigenicity but loses toxicityTetanus DiphtheriaKilled bacteria cellformaldehyde heatCholeraInactivated virusformaldehydeSalk polio vaccine InfluenzaLive cellsvirus More effectiveAttenuated has lost its virulenceTuberculosis chickenpoxPurified polysaccharideMeningitisArtificially acquired passive immunityHost receives antibodies antiserum from another host that has formed antibodies against a specific antigenEx Snakebite victim receives antivenom
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