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Exam 3 Part 2 (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051
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1Exam 3 NotesAt this point pyruvate can either be usedin fermentation to form fermentation products alcohols acids gasesin respiration TCA cycle to be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide this makes more ATP so if an organism has a choice it will choose respiration Fermentation vs RespirationFermentation can occur in the presence of O2from 1 glucose molecule a net of 2 ATP are produced partial oxidation of glucosereduction of pyruvatefermentation productsNADRespirationfrom 1 glucose molecule up to 38 ATP are produced complete oxidation of glucose to CO2oxidation of pyruvate by TCA cycleuses electron transport chain ETC and ATP synthaseFermentationDuring fermentation glycolysis occurs followed by fermentation reactions No TCA no ETCDuring glycolysis electrons from glucose are passed to 2 NAD creating 2 NADHIn fermentation electrons from NADH are passed to pyruvate regenerating NAD so glycolysis can continueIn this process glycolysis followed by fermentation reactions net gain of 2 ATP are made by substrate level PhosphorylationTypes of fermentation1Homolactic fermentationonce electrons from NADH are passed to pyruvate pyruvate is reduced to lactic acidEx Lactobacillus ferments lactose sugar in milk to produce lactic acid this gives us yogurt2Alcoholic fermentationonce electrons are passed from NADH to pyruvate pyruvate is reduced to alcohol and CO2Ex Yeast ferment the sugar in malted grains to produce alcohol and CO beer wine bread2In both types of fermentation the electron donor is glucoseelectron acceptor is pyruvate final electron acceptor in fermentation which is made from glucoseFermentation energy generating process where one organic compound exglucose serves as the electron donor and a product of that compound serves as the electron acceptor expyruvateRespirationSome chemoheterotrophs can use oxygen or other compounds from the environment to accept the electrons from NADHIf electron acceptor is oxygen process is called aerobic respirationIf electron acceptor is other compound from environment process is called anaerobic respirationFinal e acceptor may be an inorganic compoundnitrate ferric iron sulfate or carbonateIn fermentation the final electron acceptor is made by the cell from the electron donor ex Pyruvate made from glucoseIn respiration the final electron acceptor is a compound found in the environment 2ex Oxygen nitrateThe tricarboxylic acid TCA cycleaka Krebs cycle citric acid cyclecyclic pathway used to fully oxidize organic materials like acetyl CoA made from pyruvateEnd products ATP small amountNADH and FADH important used in ETC2CO2 waste productPrecursor metabolites importantOccurs during respirationOxidized pyruvate completely to CO2Only possible with inorganic electron acceptorRespiration produces more energy than fermentationPyruvate dehydrogenase complex PDCConverts pyruvate to acetylCoA by removing CO changes 3 carbons to 2 carbons 2decarboxylationSubstrate for TCA is acetyl CoA made by removing CO from pyruvate not pyruvate2Precursor metabolites made in TCA cycleAlphaketoglutarateoxaloacetate used to make amino acidsnucleotidesPyruvate 3 carbonspyruvate CoA ATP is made NADH is madeReactions of the TCA cycleAcetyl CoAoxaloacetate 4 C compound citrate 6 C compoundDuring this cycle acetyl CoA is oxidized to COoriginal oxaloacetate is regenerated2CO released2NADHFADH are generatedPrecursor metabolites are made to be used for biosynthesisAromatic CatabolismBacteria can degrade many compoundsPseudomonas Rhodococcus Aromatic compounds benzene rings converted to pyruvate which enters TCA cycleAllows growth in wide range of environmentsUsed for bioremediationCleaning up oil spillsCleaning industrial sitesDegrading toxic compoundsAerobic respirationIn aerobic respiration the pair of electrons from NADH is passed through a series of intermediates to oxygenNADH is oxidized back to NAD oxygen is reduced to waterOxygen is the terminal electron acceptorThere are several types of intermediates that pass electrons from NADH to oxygenFlavoproteins cytochromes
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