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Exam 1 Structure And Function (got 93% on the test)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 2051
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
What is Microbiology The study of cellsorganisms too small to be seen w the naked eyeMicrologists study bacteria viruses protozoans fungi algae diatomsoDiatoms are marine orgs they are studied by marine biologistsDiversity3 Domains of LifeoBacteria prokaryotesoArchaea bacterialike prokaryotesoEukarya eukaryotesHave a true nucleusMicrooorganisms areCan be acellular unicellular or multicellularCan habitat in your mouth lakes sewageOrigin of EarthBacteria4 bya Impact of MicrobesDISEASEoAt the start of the 20th century pathogens were the major causes of death in humansInfectiousdiseases caused by microorganismsMuch less deadly todayoIncreased understanding of infectious diseasescaused control of the diseasesoMicrobial diseases still a problem in developing countriesEx Malaria tuberculosis cholera African sleeping sickness measles pneumoniaoHumans worldwide under threat from suddenly emerging diseasesEx Bird flu ebola viruso Most microbials cause no harm but instead are beneficialAGRICULTUREoBenefits from the cycling of nutrients by microorganismsEx Legumes and root nodulesBacteria on roots convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia useable by the legumesCauses no need for fertilizeroMicroorganisms reside in rumen of cattle and sheepSpecial digestive vesselWhere microorganisms digest and ferment cellulose at neutral pHCattle could not digest wo themFOODoMicrobial diseases of plants and animals used for human consumptionCan cause economic lossFood product can cause human diseaseEx Ecoli salmonella oFood spoilageFood must be monitored to make sure its free of microbial spoilage and pathogenic microorganismsoFood spoilage depends of microorganismsEx Fermentation for cheese yogurt and buttermilk sauerkraut pickles and some sausage baked goods alcoholic beverages yeastENERGYoMicroorganisms produce biofuelsEx Methane ethanolCan also create biofuels from waste materialsEx Animal waste cellulose How do microbes impact humans w regard to1Agriculture2Energy3Diseases4FoodiSome microbes give access to essential nutrients1665 Robert Hooke was the first to describe microorganisms1Info under slide tells where it corresponds to the book2Made a primitive microscope thru which he discovered fruiting bodies1676 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe bacteria1Also made his own microscopes2Was beigegreyish cells he observed3Saw staphlococcus 4 Types ofLight Microscopy1BrightfieldiSimplestiiSpecimen is illuminated magnified 1000xiiiSpecimen stained to increase contrastivUsually see rod microorganisms2Phase ContrastiCan see structureiiGive illusion of deathiiiGives a 3D look2DarkfieldiVisualize live samplesiiNo staining requirediiiImage contrast derived from cell structuresivVery bright specimensvery dark background2FluorescentiVisualization of autofluorescent mlcls or fluorescent stainsiiWhen something has UV light it fluoresces rediiiDAPI is used to see DNA1It binds to DNA and fluoresces under black light2Has to be in tact3Can help count cellsCompound Light Microscope
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