Micro Chapter 8

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

Chapter 8 Transcription Translation and BioinformaticsRNA SynthesisTranscription making an RNA copy of part of a DNA strandDifferences between DNARNADNA made of deoxyribonucleotidesDouble strandedthymineSugardeoxyriboseRNA made of ribonucleotidesSingle strandeduracilSugarribose3 main types of RNA 1Messenger RNA mRNAEncode proteinsAverage 10001500 bases long2Transfer RNA tRNACarries amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein during translation3Ribosomal RNA rRNAComponent of ribosomes site of protein synthesisTemplate strandDNA strand that is being copied into complementary mRNARNA polymeraseEnzyme that transcribes DNA into RNA by adding ribonucleotides onto 3 end of growing RNA chainNeeds no primerRecognizes specific start sequence on DNA called the promoterstarts transcribing DNA into RNA at that siteBacterial RNA polymerase 4 subunits alpha 2 copies Beta Beta prime sigma function is to help core enzyme locate promoterMultiple sigma factorsover 100 known so far from numerous speciessigma70housekeeping sigma factor used for most essential genesSigma32Active when cell is stressed by heat heatshock responseProcess of transcription3 phases 1Initiation2Elongation3Termination1
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