BIOL 2051 Complete Study Guide (Got A+ on the test)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

BIOL 2051 FINAL EXAM MAY 8 2013 WEDNESDAY1EXAM 1Introduction to Microbiology1Define microbiology Study of cells or organisms to small to be seen from the naked eye2Where do you find microorganisms everywhere3How many microorganisms are estimated to be on Earth25 x 10304How long have microorganisms been on Earth4 Billions of years5Are the majority of microorganisms beneficial or harmfulbeneficial6Do good or bad microorganisms get the most publicityWhyGood they have many impacts on our lives7How do microorganisms impact our lives through the followingADiseaseiCure prevention and treatment of diseasesBAgricultureiSymbiotic relationships converting atm nitrogen to fixed nitrogenCFoodiCheeses yogurt dairies food preservationDEnergyiBiofuels methane ethanolEBioremediationiHelp clean toxic spills clean pollutionFBiotechnologyipharmaceuticals8What are microorganisms made ofCytoplasm cell membrane ribosomes DNAStructureFunctionBIOL 2051 FINAL EXAM MAY 8 2013 WEDNESDAY21Name 6 characteristics of living cellsMetabolismDifferentiationReproductionMovementCommunicationevolution23Who was the first to use a microscope to see microorganismsWhat did he seeWhat type of microscopy did he useRobert hooke 1665 mold light4Who was the first to use a microscope to see bacteriaHow do we know he saw bacteriaAntoni van leuwerisk pepper water infusions5What type of microscopy did he useelectron6What are the four types of light microscopyBrightfieldDarkfieldPhase contrastfluorescense7What must be done to a microorganism to be able to see it with brightfield light microscopyMust cut the cell stain them as well This kills the cells8Which types of light microscopy allow you to view a live samplePhase contrast and darkfield9What is the maximum resolution of a compound light microscopeDescribe what that value means in practical terms when viewing a specimen2 this means any two organisms next to each other wont be seen as next to each otherwont be seen as resolved and distinct10What are the two types of electron microscopyWhen would you use one type instead of the otherTransmissioninternal detailsScanning outside features1112What is the maximum resolution of an electron microscope24 nmBIOL 2051 FINAL EXAM MAY 8 2013 WEDNESDAY313What is the smallest microbial cell size discovered thus farWould this cell have a high or low surface areatovolume ratio compared to an average eukaryotic cell2 high surface area to volume14What is the significance of a cell having a high surface areatovolume ratioGood for nutrient and waste exchange15Discuss the problems a cell might have it were less than 02micronsWouldnt have all cell components to live16Compare and contrast a prokaryotic microbial cell and eukaryotic microbial cellProksmaller no cell organelles circular DNA transcription and translation performed together Have hopanoids in membraneEuklarger transcription in nucleus and translation in cytoplasm Organelles have sterols in membrane17What microorganisms have a phospholipid bilayer form their cytoplasmic membraneProk and eukhave ester linkages with fatty acids18What microorganisms have a lipid monolayer form their cytoplasmic membraneArchaeahave ether linkages19Contrast the phospholipid bilayer with the lipid monolayerWhat molecules make up eachWhat are the different linkages characteristic of eachBilayerpolysaccharides ester linkagesMonolayerether linkages bt glycerol and hydrophobic side chains20What advantage would microorganisms with a lipid monolayer have over those with a lipid bilayerHarder to break single attached molecule than two separate membranes heat resistant as well21What are the functions of the cytoplasmic membranePermeablility energy conservation transport Specific transport mechanisms for nutrients going against concentration gradient22Where is the cell wall located relative to the cytoplasmic membraneOutside of membrane23What Bacteria lack a cell wallMycoplasma and chlamydia24What are most Bacteria cell walls made of
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