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Everything For Test 3 (got the best grade in class)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

Chapter 13 14 15Monday March 16 2009841 PM Aerobic respirationIn aerobic respiration the pair of electrons from NADH is passed through a series of intermediates to oxygen NADH is oxidized back to NADoxygen is reduced to water Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor There are several types of intermediates that pass electrons from NADH to oxygenflavoproteinscytochromesquinonesironsulfur proteinsThese components make up an electron transport chain ETC In prokaryotes the ETC is in the cytoplasmic membrane In eukaryotes the ETC is in the mitochondria powerhouse of the cellElectron transport chain series of membrane associated electron carriers that carry electrons from the primary electron donor to terminal electron acceptor During electron transfer electron transport systems conserve some of the released energy for the synthesis of ATPElectron transport chainDifferent organisms have different ETC Some have more than one different growth conditions Electrons are passed from one compound to the nextAt each step some energy from the electrons is used to push hydrogen ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasm to the outside of the CM Hydrogen ion gradientproton motive forcechemiosmosis This creates a hydrogen ion gradient across CM Outside of CM is now more acidic and more positive than the cytoplasm This gradient is a source of potential energyATPase ATPase enzyme which adds a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP ATPase does this by allowing protons to cross back into the cytoplasm Energy is released by reducing the hydrogen ion gradient this energy is used to make the high energy bond of ATP Oxidative phosphorylation process of using the hydrogen ion gradient to make ATPSubstratelevel vs Oxidative PhosphorylationSubstratelevel phosphorylationATP is made by transferring a high energy phosphate group to ADP Oxidative phosphorylationEnergy from a hydrogen ion gradient is used to make ATP When does each occur If by respiration uses both methods If by fermentation only substrate level phosphorylationRespiration and Fermentation summaryFermentationglucose to pyruvate to fermentationProductselectrons from NADH used to reduce pyruvateNet 2 ATPglucose glycolysisOnly way to make ATP is by substratelevel phosporylationRespirationglucose to pyruvate then pyruvate is oxidized to CO2 in TCA cycleElectrons from NADH are transferred to oxygen through ETCUp to 38 ATPglucoseAnaerobic respirationSame process as aerobic respirationElectrons from NADH are passed down an ETC losing energy at each step Energy is used to move protons across cytoplasmic membrane to periplasm Energy from hydrogen ion gradient is used by ATP ase to make ATP oxidative phosphorylation Difference Final electron acceptor is some compound other than OXYGEN In anaerobic respiration electron acceptors other than O2 such as nitrate ferric iron sulfate and carbonate can function as terminal electron acceptors for energy generation Chemolithotrophs use inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide hydrogen gas ferrous iron and ammonia as primary electron donorsAerobic or anaerobic respiration takes place it just starts with an inorganic instead of organic moleculePhototrophs use light to form a proton motive forcephotosynthesis Photoheterotrophyorganic compoundcarbon flowbiosynthesisLightelectron transportproton motive forceATPPhotoautotrophyCO2carbon flowbiosynthesisAlternatives to glycolysisPentosephosphate pathwayEntnerDoudoroff pathway Pentosephosphate pathway Named for phosphorylted pentose SC sugarsribulose xylulose and ribose that are formed from G6P glucose 6 phosphate Used for production of precursor metabolites needed in anabolic reactionsNet ATPglucose Ribulose 15bisphosphate used in calvin cycle is made by phosphorylating a precursor from this pathway EntnerDoudoroff pathwayGlycolysisEmbderr MyerhotGlucose to pyruvate using different enzymes than glycolysis Net ATPglucose precursor metabolism Used by few bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis Gluconeogenesisproduction of glucose from nonsugar precursors Some cells can make glucose from amino acids glycerol and fatty acids using this pathway Glycolysis in reverse Uses most of the same enzymes as glycoysisThere are 4 unique enzymes used in this pathway Requires large amounts of energy Biosynthesis AnabolismII precursor metabolites in E coli6 from glycolysis 3 from TCA 2 from pentose phosphateAnabolic pathways convert precursors made in glycolysis TCA etc into building blocks monomers such as amino acids and nucleotides Monomers are polymerized to form macromolecules proteinsnucleic acidsstructures LPSMonomerPolymer sugarPolysaccharideNucleotideNucleic acidAmino acidProtein
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