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Microbiology Test 3 (Got A+ on the test)

55 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 2051

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Video on Chapter 17Who is considered the father of geology James HuttonthoThe church thought the earth was made October 16 in the afternoon 6000 years ago Hutton believed it had to be much older than that He studied rock and knew what had to happen to make a large rock formation Not hundreds not thousands but millions of yearsWhere is he fromScotlandWho was KelvinVictorian scientist thermodynamics expert believed the earth was slowly cooling down The fires of the planet interior suggested to him that the planet had once been completely molten He reasoned the molten planet would need 20 million yrs to cool to present temperature His figure was a colossal underestimate Unaware of a key source of heat inside the early earth radioactivity Tried to determine ago of earth based on rate of coolingWho was HolmesA 21 yr old geology student Used radiation to revolutionize our understanding of earth history Radiometric dating Traces of uranium decayed into lead By measuring the proportion of uranium to lead in crystals of rock he could accurately determine their agesWhat is the scientifically accepted age of earth45 billionyears deep timeWhat is pillow lavaRound pillow shaped Formed under water in oceans Created off the coast of Hawaii where volcanic vents erupt in the pacific ocean The shape is only formed when lava solidifies under deep waterNo rocks are left from the oldest rocks but there are crystals uranium carrying zirconthat tell the story of early rocks and water formationNotes Early hostile water worldMeteor rock that contains 5 water Rained for millions of years that made it a water world covered by 90 water water vapor mixed with CO2 in the atmosphereTemperature exceeded 200 degreesWhat type of rock were continents made ofGranite upsurge in undersea volcanic activity huge mass of ancient granite under southern Africa upsurge of volcanism fractured crust of earth allowing water to plunge into cracks of water granite rose from the depths the mixture of water and molten lava formed the first continental crust Tough enough to withstand erosive ocean powerGradually grew larger granite crust forms the hearts of major landmassesShallow coastlines help trigger the production of oceanWhat are strometho matolitesAn organism that lies off sun and fills the atmosphere with oxygen primeval organism that can still be found today on the shoreline of Australia in Shark Bay up to one foot across and two feet high a rare bacterial algae creates them the bacteria build up solely layer by layer as they use energy to make food and rock is their waste product blossomed globally when earth was first formingLayers of photosynthetic bacteria that become fossilizedHow is oxygen thought to have appeared in the atmosphereThe strometholites filled the earth with oxygen The algae on the organisms turn sunlight into oxygen over 2 billion years the organisms pumped out tons of oxygen as a product of phtosynthesis as iron left the oceans the oceans turned from green to blueWhen is life thought to have arisen35 billion years agoExplain plate tectonicsThe study of continental movement the consensus was that the continents were fixed and unmoving the geographic positions of certain fossils made people question this view fossils showed intercontinental distribution and scientists struggled for an explanation a German scientist proposed that the continents had once been joined together he was convinced continental drift was possible few geologists could accept the theories of a mere meteorologist got lost in a snow storm and diedlike a dumb assBreakthrough came after the us navy came out with a map of the ocean floor which revealed the fractured network of submarine mountains rifts and trenches which split the world into platesMolten lava is in continuous movements convection currents the currents rise and push plates as the currents move back down it drags the continent down under another plateWhat is the rate of continental drift25 centimeters 1 inch per yeargrowth rate of fingernailsWhat is RodiniaA supercontinent Canada and the USA formed the heart of it it was a desolatelifeless place like a desert has a profound effect on ocean life the supercontinent trigger snowball earthWhat is thought to have happened 700 million years agothe biggest freeze the world has ever seen blocked the currents that brought warm water from the equator the poles surfaces temperatures fell below 40 degrees marine bacteria and algae were trapped beneath ice the whole planet was dyingsnowball earthWhat is the Cambrian explosionAfter ice melted huge diversity of life forms in a relatively short period of time life forms were in the oceanvast volcanic eruptions were splitting the supercontinent apart co2 from the eruption created a temperature greenhouse effect causing the ice sheets to draw back shallow seas opened up oxygen levels increasedThe highest oxygen levels the earth has ever seen many dangerous organisms came to develop
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