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BIOL 2051 Exam 3 Outline 2 (got 94% in the course)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

At this point pyruvate can either be used in fermentation to form fermentation products alcohols acids gases ORin respiration TCA cycle to be fully oxidized to CO2Fermentation vs RespirationFermentationfrom 1 glucose molecule a net of 2 ATP are produced partial oxidation of glucosereduction of pyruvatefermentation productsNADRespirationfrom 1 glucose molecule up to 38 ATP are produced under ideal conditionscomplete oxidation of glucose to CO2oxidation of pyruvate by TCA cycleuses electron transport chain ETC and ATP synthaseFermentationDuring fermentation glycolysis occurs followed by fermentation reactions No TCA No ETCDuring glycolysis electrons from glucose are passed to 2 NAD creating 2 NADHIn fermentation electrons from NADH are passed to pyruvate regenerating NAD so glycolysis can continueIn this process glycolysis followed by fermentation reactions net gain of 2 ATP are made by substrate level phosphorylationTypes of fermentation1 Homolactic fermentation once electrons from NADH are passed to pyruvate pyruvate is reduced to lactic acidEx Lactobacillus ferments lactose sugar in milk to produce lactic acid this gives us yogurt2 Alcoholic fermentation once electrons are passed from NADH to pyruvate pyruvate is reduced to alcohol and CO2Ex Yeast ferment the sugar in malted grains to produce alcohol and CO2 beer wine breadIn both types of fermentation the electron donor is glucose and electron acceptor is pyruvate which is made from glucoseFermentation energy generating process where one organic compound exglucose serves as the electron donor and a product of that compound serves as the electron acceptor expyruvateRespirationSome chemoheterotrophs can use oxygen or other compounds from the environment to accept the electrons from NADHIf electron acceptor is oxygen process is called aerobic respirationIf electron acceptor is other compound from environment process is called anaerobic respirationFinal electron acceptor may be an inorganic compound such as nitrate ferric iron sulfate or carbonateIn fermentation the final electron acceptor is made by the cell from the electron donor
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