Micro Metabolism Study guide

14 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 2051

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Metabolism1What is a redox reactionOxidation the removal of an electron or electrons from a substanceReduction the addition of an electron or electrons to a substanceRedox reactions occur in pairs oxidation and reduction because when a substance becomes oxidized and loses an electron half reaction that electron cannot exist alone in the solution so some other substance must be reduced2What happens to a molecule that is reducedReduction the addition of an electron or electrons to a substance electron acceptor3What happens to a molecule that is oxidizedOxidation the removal of an electron or electrons from a substance electron donor4What does an electron carrier doAn electron carrier allows electron donors and acceptors to interact with the coenzyme as the intermediary5How can NAD act as an electron carrier Electrons removed from the electron donor can reduce NAD to NADH6How can NADH act as an electron carrierNADH can then donate electrons to the electron acceptor to be converted back to NAD 7What are examples of short term energy storage moleculesaShort termaATPi2 phosphoanhydride bonds high energy phosphate bondsiiPhosphate bonds when broken off release a lot of energyiiiPrimary energy carrier in the cellbCoenzymes of enzyme AiHold energy in thoister bonds and when these bonds are broken they release enough energy to do work8What are examples of long term energy storage moleculesHow is each considered an energy storage moleculeaLong termaGlycogeniStored for independent molecules of glucoseiiCan cleave off a glycogen molecule in order to make short term energy when neededbPolybetahydroxybutyrateiCleave a bit of the hydrogen bonds off to store energycElemental sulfuriPurple sulfur bacteriawhen use hydrogen sulfide and take electron from it produces Elemental sulfuriiStore elemental sulfur in periplasm iiiThese bacteria are photosyntheticivCan use Elemental sulfur as an electron donor to photosynthesis9Where does a chemoorganotroph get its energy and electronsChemoorganotroph aAn organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds through the process of fermentation aerobic respiration or anaerobic respirationaFermentation ATP is produced using substratelevel phosphorylation The ATP is synthesized directly from energyrich intermediates during steps in the catabolism of the fermentable substratebAerobic Respiration Oxidation using O2 as the terminal electron acceptorcAnaerobic Respiration Oxidation using other acceptors under anoxic conditions10Where does a chemolithotroph get its energy and electronsChemolithotroph Organisms able to use inorganic chemicals as electron donors primarily through aerobic respiration but some are capable of anaerobic respiration11What is Substrate Level phosphorylation3aA phosphate group PO is removed from an ORGANIC MOLECULE 4substrate and added to ADP to make ATP12What is Oxidative Phosphorylation3aInorganic phosphate free POP is added onto ADP to make ATP by 4iATP synthaseaBinds ADP and INORGANIC phosphate that is free NO SUBSTRATE NOT BOUND TO ORGANIC MOLECULE
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