Control Of Microbial Growth

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2051

Control of Microbial Growth1Describe two ways prokaryotes defend against viral infectionDNA methylationDNA methylases to methylate their own DNA to prevent cleavage by their own restriction endonucleases DNA methylases mark DNARestrictionrestriction endonucleases to cut viral dsDNA at specific nucleotide sequencessome cut staggered some cut straight2What type of DNA is susceptible to restriction endonuclease cleavageDouble stranded DNA3Will restriction be effective against RNA viruses Against ssDNA virusesNo only double stranded dna4How can viruses avoid host defensesModify their DNA to avoid digestion by restriction endonucleasesiGlycosylationdisguising with sugar1Bacteriophage T4 uses 5hydroxymethyl cytosine sugar instead of cytosine to disguise the base its resistant to cutting by enzymesiiMethylationmarking their DNA making it uncuttableEncode proteins to inhibit host restriction enzymes5What occurs during the latent period of viral replication Integration into the hosts genome6Describe RNA interferenceWhat type animal prokaryotic DNA RNA etc of virus is this effective againstTargets dsRNA for degredationiDicerdsRNA nucleaserecognizes dsRNA only and chops it up into little piecesiisiRNAsegments made by dicer attached onto RISCiiiRISCRNA inducing silencing complexbinds siRNA and separates the two strands finds mRNA complementary to siRNA and cleaves mRNAivSlicerssRNA nucleasecleaves ssRNA from RISCrna fragments are degraded by exonuclease7What is the primary way for humans to control the spread of virusesHand washing8What kind of drugs can be used to treat viral infectionsWhat do these medicines targetAntiviral drugstarget specific viral enzymes and processes9Can antibiotics be used to treat viral infectionsNo lol viruses are not bacteria duh10Who is Louis PasteurWhat hypothesis did he disproveHe disproved the theory of spontaneous generation He discovered diseases might be caused by microorganisms and certain microorganisms might be responsible for each one
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