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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 2160

Chapter1617RespiratorySystem01172013Respiration Includes 6 separate functionsVentilation Breathing not respirationGas exchange between air and blood in the lungs external and between blood and tissue cell respirationINTERNALO2 into the mitochondria and production of Co2 cell respiration0utilization Cellular respiration2 Homeostatic regulation of blood pHProtection from inhaled pathogensirritantsVocalizationTerminologyInspiration movement of air into lungsExpiration movement of air out of lungsConducting System airways from nose to alveoli KNOW IT functional units are only one cell thick From Lyrnx glottistrachealungsAlveoli functional unit where exchange of gases occurs by diffusion Type I single layer of endothelial cellsan underlying basement membranethinness of respiratory membrane capillaryalveolar wall is essential for efficient gas exchangeMake up wall of alveoliType II secrete surfactant detergent that decreases surface tension increasing lung compliance making inspiration easier Diaphragmintercostals major muscles in ventilationCompliance ability of lungs to stretch and recoil External RespirationPulmonary ventilation moving air into the pulmonary capillariesout of lungs by bulk flowExchange of O2CO2 bw lung air spacesblood by diffusionTransportation of O2CO2 bw the lungsbody tissues by the bloodExchange of O2CO2 bw bloodtissues by diffusion Figure 161 External RespirationInternal RespirationExternal Respiration ventilation and exchange NOT a 11 exchangeCO2 is produced by the Krebs Cycle in mitochondria Krebs Cycle is not part of the external respiration Upper Airwaysair passages in the headneckAir enters nasal cavity or oral cavityleading to pharynx muscular tube serves as passageway for BOTH airfood stthen air goes to Larynx 1 structure in the respiratory tractUvulaepiglottis closes over glottis which covers larynx when swallowing so food doesnt get in air waysVocal cordsRespiratory Tract Know pathway fig 162Functions of the Conducting Zone conducting air from larynx to lungsWarm air to body temperatureBook as air travels through the conducting zone its temp is adjusted to body tempHumidify air mucusBook as air travels through the conducting zone its humidified to keep the respiratory tract moistFilter air nasal hairs cilia except alveoliThe epiglottis glottis larynxtrachealungs are part of the conducting zone Epithelium of the Conducting Zone the following is found densely in larynxtrachealesser extent in bronchiGoblet cellssecret mucus which coats the airwaystraps foreign particles in inhaled airCiliated cellscilia move particles toward mouth pharynx to be swallowed in a whiplike fashionsmokers lose their cilia freezethey have no way to move mucus out of lungs so they cough because they have no other way to get the mucus out Mucus escalator above process is called Mucus escalatorFigure 165 Structures of the Respiratory ZoneFigure 166 Respiratory bronchioles AlveoliAlveolar sacs rich capillary supplyFunctional UnitExchange of gases between air and blood by diffusion Respiratory membrane 02 microns thick Structures of the Thoracic CavityFig 167Pleuradouble membrane lining of lungs and chest wallPleural sac around each lungParietal lines cavity Visceral lines lungIntrapleural space filled with fluid if the fluid production racks up usually during infection we call it pleurisy Pleurisy infection causing shortness of breathdrowning feeling due to too much fluid Alveoli Part of RESPIRATORY ZONEfacilitates diffusion of gases bw bloodairType 1 alveolar cellsmake up wall of alveoliSingle layer epithelial cellsType 2 alveolar cellssecrete surfactant detergent that decreases surface tensionMade of phospholipidsproteinsSurfactant increases lung compliance making inspiration easierAlveolar macrophages clear debrisfree to roam around in alveoli by amoeboid movementsFigure 167 Chest Wall and Pleural SacChest wallair tight and protects lungs Figure 169 Pneumothorax air in the intraplural spaceChanges the air pressure and the lung will collapse Fortunately the two different lungs are in two different places so if you can collapse one you can survive w the other You therefore cannot play in sports because you are out of breath and it puts a strain on your lungs Depending upon where the damage is you can just collapse a part of the lung With time eventually the other lung will reinflate once you seal off the damaged area Atmospheric Pressure760 mm Hg at sea levelDecreases as altitude increasesIncreases under waterOther lung pressures given relative to atmospheric
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