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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2160
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Chapter12MuscleControl01172013IT IS CRITICAL THAT YOU VIEW THE VIDEO BEFORE COMING TO CLASSBe sure you know the followingSkeletal Muscle StructureThe Mechanism of Force Generation in MuscleThe Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle ContractionTypes of Skeletal Muscle FibersSmooth and Cardiac MuscleMuscle FunctionsTypesFUNCTIONS1 generate motion2 generate force3 generate heatTYPES1 skeletal voluntary control 2 smooth internal3 cardiac heartWhen talking about skeletal muscle always refer to just muscle Structure and Actions Skeletal muscle attached to bone by tendonstends have very few blood vessels and take a long time to heal ex Rip tendon at the bonetakes a long time to heal Tension on tendons by muscles cause movement of the bonesAbuse of anabolic steroids increases muscle mass without corresponding increase in tension strengthIncrease the size of plasma but not the cells it has nothing o do with the ability of the tendon to strengthen along with the muscle Golgi tendon organs monitor tensionprevent excessive stretching Slower stretching allows GTO reflex to relaxyour not putting that much tension because youve stretched it out and prepared it for the work planned to do Encapsulated in collagen of tendonFigure 1231 Golgi Tendon OrgansSeriesElastic ComponentNoncontractile tendons and connective tissue absorb tension as the muscle contracts stretchy elastic but NOT contractile Tendons first must be pulled tight before the muscle contraction results in shortening TendonsHave elasticity resist distensionstretching Display recoilIntra vs Extrafusal FibersExtrafusalmuscleContractile cells of the muscle have myofibrilsResponsible for skeletal muscle contractionInnervated by alpha motor neuronsIntrafusal Contractile cells of the muscle spindlewilder in center and functions as length detectormuscles with fine control have lots of spindlesex face has lots of spindlesRun parallel with extrafusal fibersAdjust sensitivity of muscle to stretchInnervated by gamma motor neurons CHARTMuscle TerminologyGeneral TermMuscle EquivalentMuscle cellMuscle fiberCell membraneSacrolemmaCytoplasmSarcoplasmSmooth ERSarcoplasmic ReticulumFigure 121 Structure of a Skeletal Muscle Musclegroup of fasciclesEach fascicle contains hundreds to thousands of muscle cells muscle
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