BIOL 2160 Ch 22 (highest grade in class)

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 2160
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 22ReproductionSex HormonesTestes androgensOvaries estrogens and progesteroneAlthough males have more androgens and females have more estrogens and progesterone all these hormones are found in both sexesAdrenal cortex produces sex hormoneExcess of testosterone converted to estrogenEvents Following FertilizationCopulationact of matingSperm deposited into female to fertilize ovumeggAfter fertilizationpregnancy or gestationFirst two months embryoAfter two months fetusAbout nine months partuition or birthRole of Chromosomes in Determining SexChromosomes determine whether fetus develops ovaries or testessex determinationY chromosome srY gene sexdetermining region on YIf srY gene presentgonads are testesIf srY gene absentovariesFemale is the default set absence of extraSex DifferentiationSex differentiation controlled by hormonesFirst 2 weeks embryo sexually indifferentCan have baby that does not have receptors for the hormones so looks diff than the sexWolffian ducts precursor to male tract van deferensMullerian ducts precursor to female tractoviductsIf testes present due to srY gene testes secrete Testosterone and Mullerianinhibiting substance MISThese hormones stimulate development of wolffian ducts and degeneration of Mullerian ductsNo testes no srY geneHormones absentwolffian ducts regress mullerian ducts developEmbryos developing into males are first body gives chance for embryo to be female female known laterDevelopment of Reproductive Organssee diagramsWolffian ducts attach to the gonadsEventually create epididimisMullerian ducts do not attach to gonadsAre open and not attached to ovary egg is shed into abdominal cavity and egg sucked into oviduct BUT egg can stay in abdominal cavity and have inuterine pregancySex Determination and Differentiation Fig 223ComparisonUrogenital sinus prostate and vaginaGenital tubercle penis and clitorisLabio folds scrotum and labia lipsDucts vas deferens and oviductsGonads testes and ovariesErrors in Sexual DevelopmentTesticular FeminizationAndrogen insensitivity syndromeNo cell receptors for testosteroneClinical features 071000 live births Or 7100000XY with external female genitaliaInternal testes no uterus or fallopian tubesAt puberty testosterone converted to estrogen for secondary sex characteristics1988 Maria Patino Spanish hurdler stripped of all medalsPatterns of Reproductive Activity Over the Human Life SpanAdolescence up to 1014 yearsInability to reproduce generallyPuberty starts at 1014 years later in boysSexual maturationReproductive organs mature can produce spermSecondary sexual characteristics developLeptin increases 40 higher in females fat accumulation occurs breasts and broad hipsSexual maturation late teens on upFemale reproductive system cyclesFemale lose ability to reproduce around 4550Male can continually produce spermReach final height for men at 25 females at 16Male Reproductive SystemProstate gland urethra goes through prostateSemen goes through hereProstate problems cannot urinate well squeezed
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