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BIOL 3040 Exam 1 Notes (highest grade in class)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3040
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BIOL3040ChrisGreggExam1Chapter1ABriefIntroductiontoEvolutionandNaturalSelection1Examples of how evolution biologists study evolutionaFossilsa good record but only organisms with hard shells and bones fossilize well incomplete picturebMorphology2Evolutionary Change and the Food We EataSelective breedingartificial selectionbResistancenatural selectioncBoth affect agriculturedVarious crops have been domesticated for over 10000 years3Evolutionary Change and PharmaceuticalsaAntibiotic and antiretroviral resistance is a direct result of natural selectionbOnce an antibiotic or pesticide is introduced resistance is soon foundcMore money must be investedto acquire ways to fight the same diseases and pests with resistances4Reduce variation in fitnessrelated traitaDrug CocktailbDont abusecTake full dosedOverkill5Reduce directional selectionaRotate antibiotics6Reduce heritabilityaCreate refugeslike leaving a field untreated to reintroduce sensitive alleles back into treated populationBIOL3040ChrisGreggExam17Evolution and Conservation BiologyaAbout 99 of all species on Earth have gone extinctbHumans accelerated extinction ratescDebate about what to protect from extinctioniA few unique lineages oriiProtect the vast diversity8Empirical and Theoretical Approaches to the Study of EvolutionaEmpirical ApproachesiStudying the fossil recordiiInferring evolutionary history from the genetic sequencesiiiMeasuring behaviors occurring in natural populationsivExperimentsbHumanChimp DivergenceiNucleotide divergences is about13 but variable across the genomeiiChanges are greatest in genes involved in disease resistance and reproduction traitsiiiDifferences in gene expression1Divergence in gene expression in the testes2More subtle evidence of differential gene expression in the braincSperm allocation in chickensiFemales store sperm in tubules once a male has deposited sperm through the cloacaiiWith more competition the male will invest a larger amount of sperm to ensure passing on genes to the next generationdTheoretical ApproachesiWhy is there an even sex ratio1In nature a 11 sex ratio is often observed but why2Fisher Sex Ratio Model
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