Biol3090 - All Notes (got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3090
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BIOL309001242012Chapter 1Life Begins with Cells The Cell TheoryAll living things are composed of cells and their products Schleiden and Schwann German physiologists1838Viruses Ominis cellula e cellula German doctor and anatomist Rudolph Virchow1855All Cells from CellsBefore this is was believed that cells formed from freecell formation similar to the way that ice crystals formed Spontaneous Generation The modern cell theory1 All living things are made up of cells2 The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things3 All cells come from preexisting cells by division mitosisMeiosisGametes4 Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell through division5 All cells are basically the same in chemical composition6 All energy flow metabolism and biochemistry occurs within the cellBiological systemsThe activity of the organism as a whole is the sum of the activities and interactions of essentially independent cell units The cellThe closest thing to an autonomous biological unit that exists thLodish et al 4 Editionis the fundamental unit of lifeththLodish et al 5 annd 6 EditionsEvolution1 A change in the genetic makeup of a population over time as a result of natural selection2 Process by which favorable hereditary traits become more common in a population and less favorable traits become less common3 The single most important concept in the field of biology Eukaryotes and Archaea diverged from Bacteria billions of years before they diverged from each other Archaea are basic singlecelled organisms Figure 13 ProkaryotesSinglecelled organisms that consist of a single closed compartment surrounded by a plasma membrane lack a true nucleus and have relatively simple internal organization No membranebound organelles1 BacteriaEscherichia coli E coliCan be unicellular or consist of a chain of cells Nucleoid Bacterial DNA that is not enclosed in a membrane unlike the nucleus in eukaryotes E coli and some other bacteria are surrounded by 2 membranes separated by the periplasmic space There is also a thin cell wall situated directly external to the inner membrane Figure 12a 2 ArchaeaSinglecelled microorganismsSeparated form bacteria through extensive DNA analysisCell membranes have chemical properties that differ dramatically from those of bacteria and eukaryotesMany grow in harsh environmentsHalophiles High salt High osmolarityThermoacidophiles High temperaturesGrow in hot sulfur springs 80 degrees Celsius and at a pH often below 2Methanophiles Oxygen deficient environments Combine water with CO to make CH24Model Organism Escherichia coli BacteriaProteins involved in DNA RNA protein synthesis metabolism gene regulation targets for new antibiotics cell cycle and signalingFigure 125b EukaryotesOuter plasma membrane as prokaryotesBut extensive internal membranes that enclose other compartments known as organelles Membranes and PhospholipidsBiological membranes Compartmental barriersPhospholipids Amphipathic Contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groupsCholesterol for rigidityMembrane Proteins Receptors channels and pumpsFigure 113 Figure 12bEukaryotic cell White Blood Cell EukaryotesOuter plasma membrane as in prokaryotesBut extensive internal membranes Organelle membranes establish essential environments for specialized functions that must be separates form the cytosolWhy pH OsmolarityA true nucleus that contains the cellular DNA chromosomes Why compartmental organization
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