Cell Biology Test 1 Notes (got the best grade in class)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3090
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Cell Biology Test 1 Notes Chapter 1 Life Begins with Cells 1Four aspects of the cell theory All living things are composed of cells and their products Schleiden and SchwannCells are essentially alike in chemical constitutionOmnis cellula e cellula All cells come from living cells VirchowThe activity of the organism as a whole is the sum of the activities and interactions of essentially independent cell units2Archaea are in between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of evolution Fig 13 Eukaryotes and Archaea diverged from the Bacteria before they diverged from each otherBacteria and Archaea are similar because they have no nucleus they have a nucleoid instead Both are considered Prokaryotes singlecelled organisms that lack a true nucleus 3Halophiles vs Thermophiles vs Methanophiles Halophiles grow in high salt environmentsThermophiles grow in high temperature environmentsMethanophiles grow in oxygen deficient environments They reduce CO to make 2CH44What is the nucleoid in a prokaryotic cell The nucleoid is the area in a prokaryotic cell complementary to the eukaryotic nucleus The nucleoid is not membranebound but it houses the cells DNA5What important internal features distinguish eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cellsEukaryotic cells contain membranebound organelles Also contain a true nucleus that contains the chromosomes and the nucleolus6List the names and functions of the various eukaryotic organelles Would you consider a ribosome an organelle What about the nucleolus inside the nucleus Nucleus enclosed by an envelope that consists of two membranes contains most of the cells DNAMitochondria inner and outer membranes produces most of the cells energy in the form of ATP matrix contains DNA RNA and ribosomesRough Endoplasmic Reticulum synthesis membrane and secretory proteinsSmooth ER synthesis of lipids and steroidsGolgi Apparatus transport and modification of membrane and secretory proteinsPeroxisomes degradation of fatty acids and amino acidsLysosomes animal cells only degradation of old organelles and foreign materialsChloroplats plant cells only photosynthesis light and dark regions contains DNA and RNAVacuoles mostly in plant cells large fluidfilled organelles store nutrients and waste materialsCytoskeleton cell shape and strength organelle movementRibosome translation of RNA into proteinsNucleolus production of ribosomes
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