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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 3090
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
031610Chapter4continuedLetsbackupabitBeforeacodonisrecognizedbytRNAthattRNAhastohaveanaminoacidattachedtoitThisiscatalyzedbyaspecificaminoacyltRNAsynthetase20differentformsofthisenzymeoneforeachaminoacidEachenzymerecognizesoneaminoacidandallofitscompatibletRNAsorcognatetRNAsLinkaminoacidtothefree2or3hydroxyloftheadenosineatthe3terminusoftRNAinanATPdependentreactionAminoacyltRNAsynthetaseslinkaspecificaminoacidtoitscognatetRNAsFig419RecallCCA3endofthetRNAAdenosinehasahydroxylgroupTheenergyofthisbondsubsequentlydrivesformationofpeptidebondslinkingaminoacidsingrowingpeptidechainAminoacyltRNASynthetasesOncecoupledtotheappropriateaminoacidthetRNAissaidtobeactivatedorchargedSynthetaseshaveaproofreadingfunctionOnlysynthetasecanrecognizethecognatetRNAsforagivenaminoacidoMeansthattheenzymerecognizessomeidentitysiteonthecognatetRNAsoIdentifysiteanticodoninpartoOtherpartsofthetRNAalsocontributetorecognitionErrorprotectionAminoacyltRNAsynthetasescheckthefitintheiraminoacidbindingpocketIfthewrongaminoacidbecomesactivatedtheenzymecatalyzesremovalofthisaminoacidfromthetRNAOveralltheerrorrateforEcoliisabout1outofevery50000codons0002ofthetimeRibosomesIfthemachineryrequiredforproteinsynthesismRNAaminoacyltRNAsetcwerefreetofloataboutinsolutionthelikelihoodthattheywouldinteractandassemblewouldbeextremelylowProteinsynthesisratewouldbetoolowtosustainlifeasweknowitBindingtoribosomesgreatlyincreasestheefficiencyofthisprocessRibosomesproteinsynthesizingmachinesMostabundantRNAProteincomplexesinthecellMachinesthatoReadthemRNAoBindactivatedtRNAsandgrowingpeptidechainsoCatalyzepeptidebondformation35aminoacidsincorporatedpersecond150300perminTworibosomalsubunitstomakeoneintactribosomeoLargesubunitLSUoSmallsubunitSSUOneribosomecontainsoFourribosomalRNAsrRNAso83ribosomalproteinsineukaryotesRibosomeAssemblyLSUandSSUSSvedburgunitsameasureofsedimentationrateundercentrifugationessentiallyaunitofsizeFig42260S40S80SLSUassemblyineukaryotesrRNAs28S58Sand5SProteins50largesubunitproteinscalledL1L2L3
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