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Cell Bio 2nd Exam (aced the test and got 96%)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3090
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Cell Bio Test 2Chemical equilibriumInitiallyoABXYBut after a whileoABXYAt this pointoRates of the forward and reverse reactions are equaloSaid to be at chemical equilibriumoConcentrations of reactants and products might not be equal to each other but they dont changeChemical reaction AB reactantsAB productsAt chemical equilibrium the concentrations of reactants and products stops changingRatio of products to reactants at equilibrium is called the equilibrium constantKeqKeq a fixed constant that is independent of reaction rateoIf sped up does not change KeqoChanging the reactants changes the KeqKeq depends on the nature of the reactants and products temperature and pressureoEQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT does not equal REACTION RATEKeq is always the same for a given reaction regardless if a catalyst is present or notCatalyst speeds up reaction rate but does not change KeqyzabIf aAbByYzZ then KeqYZABa b y and z are simply the number of each respective moleculeThere will be a forward rate and a reverse rateabRate forwardKf ABRate reverseKr YyZzKf is the rate constant for the forward reaction Kr is for the reverseabyzAt equilibrium kf ABkr YZyzTherefore krkfYZAaBbKeqA catalyst will accelerate the forward and reverse reactions by the same factor so Keq does not change with a catalyst presentOK now we have a dissociation reactionoGAGAoGAGAKeq which again does not changeoIf you add excess A to the reaction A risesoBut Keq must stay the sameoTherefore G must declineoFor G to decline the reverse reaction rate must increaseoYou drive the reaction backwards to make more GAEquilibrium vs Steady StateIn living celloABAB CABC D ABCDProducts AB and ABC never reach an equilibrium because theyre rapidly consumedoBut they are also being rapidly produced inside the cellSo products AB and ABC reach what is called a STEADY STATEoWhere the AB and ABC remain constantFig 223oThe rate of formation of Brate of consumption of B These individual reactions do NOT reach equilibrium but instead reach a steady stateEvolutionary benefits of Steady State reactionsWhy would cells need to perform chemical reactions this way
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