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Exam 1 Notes (got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 3090

082409Office hoursMWF 1230130 or by appointment5781754 or in gleason labRoom 274thMolecular cell biology 6 editionMoodle hotline 5783375Chapter 1 Life Begins with CellsThe Cell TheoryAll living things are composed of cells and their products Schleiden and Schwann German physiologists1838Omnis cellula e cellula German doctor and anatomist Rudolph Virchow 1855All cells come from cellsBefore this it was believed that cells formed from freecell formation similar to the way ice crystals formed Spontaneous generationThe modern cell theory1All living things are made up of cells2The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things3All cells come from preexisting cells by division mitosis Meiosis gametes4Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell through division5All cells basically the same in chemical composition6All energy flow metabolism and biochemistry occurs within the cellBiological systemsThe activity of the organism as a whole is the sum of the activities and interactions of essentially independent cell unitsthThe Cell closest thing to an autonomous biological unit that exists Lodish et al 4 editionththis the fundamental unit of life Lodish et al 56 editionsEvolutionA change in the genetic makeup of a population over time as a result of natural selection process by which favorable hereditary traits become more common in a population and less favorable traits become less commonThe single most important concept in the field of biologyEukaryotes and Archaea diverged from Bacteria billions of years before they diverged from each otherThus although prokaryotic Achaea show many similarities to eukaryotesArchaea are basic singlecelled organismsFIG 13ProkaryotesSinglecelled organisms that consists of a single closed compartment surrounded by a plasmamembrane lack a true nucleus and have relatively simple internal organizationoEubacteriaEschericia coli E coliBluegreen algae now called cyanobacteriaCan be unicellular or consist of a chain of cellsNucleoid bacterial DNA that is not enclosed in a membrane unlike the nucleus in eukaryotesoE Coli and some other bacteria are surrounded by 2 membranes separated by the periplasmic spaceoThere is also a thin cell wall situated directly external to the inner membraneoFIG 12aProkaryotes Bacteria and Archaeaa Prokayotic cellSeptuminvagination of the cell membrane that occurs prior to cell divisionFrom inside out innerplasma membrane cell wall periplasmic space outer membrane2 Archaea Singlecelled microorganisms
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