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Cell Bio Test 3 Notes (got the best grade in class)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 3090

CellBio30901Test3Chapter 4 Molecular Genetic Mechanisms1Pages 111161DNA ReplicationTranscription tRNAs 3 mRNAs 2 rRNAs 95Translation to ProteinsOscar Miller at University of Virginia was the first to visualize actively transcribing genes in 19692Millers Christmas Tress3RNA Transcription1Xenopus oocyte4It is arguably one of the best known biological images produced in the last 40 years amply demonstration that a picture is worth a thousand words1Joe Gall 2001Figure 415Read this figure legend A closer look at Nucleic Acids6A nucleotide consists of11 Nitrogenous Base22 Ribose deoxyribose33 13 Phosphates2 A polynucleotide chain7Condensation synthesis8Phosphodiester bonds95 phosphate103 hydroxyl11Synthesis is ALWAYS in the 5 to 3 direction12Figure 42a Base Pairing Rules13Based on size shape and composition of the bases14G pairs with C using 3 hydrogen bonds15A pairs with T using 2 hydrogen bonds16Notice sugarphosphate backbone are on the outside with base projected inwards17Figure 43b Watson and Crick 195318DNAbinding proteins can bind atoms attached to bases in the minor groove and major groove19Base pairs stack on top of each other allowing for Van der Waals interactions that help stabilize the helix20Standard Bform DNA1Most prevalent form in the cellCellBio30903Test32Helix is right handed310 base pairs per turn21Figure 43a Proteins make contact with bases via Hbonds and Van der Waals usually within the major groove22DNA does change shape upon binding DNA can bend when certain proteins bind Helix is perturbed Opened up23TATABoxBinding Protein TATA Box 1ThymineAdenineThymineAdenine2Transcription of most eukaryotic genes requires binding of this protein3Figure 45 DNA24DNA sequencing revealed that most of the genome of higher eukaryotes does not encode mRNAs or any other RNAs Appear to serve no purpose whatsoever in the life cycle of an organism25Accounts for 95 of human chromosomal DNA26These noncoding regions are similar in humans but not identical Accounts for your DNA fingerprint MiniSatellite Sequence2715 kb regions made up of 2050 repeat units each unit containing 14100 bp28 331 MinisatelliteSingle nucleotide polymorphism Difference in sequence between individuals of the same species
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