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Final Exam (got 94% in the course)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3156
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Final ExamThird SectionTermsSubgerminal Cavitynot analogous to the blastocoel cavityArea pellucidaclear space in an embryo that opens during cleavagearea over the subgerminal cavityArea opacaarea at the marginal zones that overlie the yolkEpiblastlayer of cells that form the area pellucidacells from which the embryo proper will be formed can also contribute to the extraembryonic membranesPosterior marginal zonecells that begin to proliferate at the edge of the egg that ultimately give rise to the Kollers sickle and split the subgerminal cavityPrimary hypoblastcells that delaminate from the area pellucidaepiblastbecome embedded and form polyinvaginated islandsSecondary hypoblastcells that project from Kollers crescent that interact with the primary hypoblast islands to form a single cell layer across the subgerminal cavityKollers sickleseems to act as an inducernot analogous to the Neiuwkoop center or the primary organizerdefined as the thickened region of cells at the posterior margin of the epiblastsecondary epiblastsecrete Tg1 and nodal organizing site becomes the anusPrimary epiblastdelaminate from the epiblast cells and contribute to the formation of they hypoblastHypoblastonly contributes to the extraembryonic membranePrimitive streakpushed forward by convergent extension and ingressionforms the embryonic mesoderm extraembryonic mesoderm and embryonic endodermHypoblast and epiblastcombine to divide the subgerminal cavity to form the blastocoelHensons nodeanteriormost portion of the primitive streakanalogous to the dorsal lip of the blastopore acts as an organizerThis is shown when you transplant Hensons node not exactly on the primitive streakA new embryonic axis is produced witha new neural tube formingChordamesodermcells that are laid down along the middorsal line of mesoderm in the avian embryo when cells are migrating through Hensons nodeinduces the overlying ectoderm to form neural structureseventually becomes the notochord in mammalsPrimitive grooveanalogous to the lateral lips of the blastoporeAmniotesterrestrial prolonged embryonic development dependent on a longterm meaternally supplied nutrient extraembryonic membranesAnamniotesaquatic rapid developers no extraembryonic membranes extract nutrient from the environment early in life historySplanchnopleureendoderm and splanchnic mesodermSomatopleureectoderm and mesodermCAM chorioallantoic membranecontains all three germ layersYolk saccontains endoderm and mesodermearly respiratory organ digestionnutritionformed from the hypoblast in the mammalian embryoChorioncontains ectoderm trophoblast cells and mesoderm ICMshock protection later used for gas exchange membrane for respiration eventually produces openings called lacunaeAmnioncontains ectoderm embryonic epiblast and endodermmost important as shock protection fluidfilled development chamber
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