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Final Exam2 (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3156
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Final ExamSecond SectionTermsOrganogenesis1 mature ovum for each primary oocytegrowth and differentiation before meiosisoIn spermatogenesis1 primary spermatocyte4 sperm growth before differentiation after meiosisPrevitelogenic stageformation of information mRNA proteins cell machinery diplotene stage arrestDiplotene stage arrestcan be very long all oocytes in this stage just before the oocytes ovulateVitellogenic stagenutrient storageSingle copy DNAlampbrush chromosomes code for mmRNA have extended halflifemmRNAmaskin minus cap protein etcRepetitive DNArRNA production in the nucleolus called gene amplification inside GV are supernumerary nucleoli which are not attached to chromatinSolitary gonadsoocytes receive nutrients from maternal fluids with no helper cellsAlimentary gonadsoocyte relies on folliclenurse cellsFollicular cellsfollicle cells transport by gap junctions or pinocytosisNutrimentaryrelies on nurse cells follicle cells are also presentno lampbrush chromosomes or supernumerary nucleolipolytene chromosomes meroistic ovarycharacteristic of insectsMerioistic ovariestypical of insects and annelids Ovary divides until 16cell stage Of these cells 2 will have four intercytoplasmic bridges Only one of these two will become the ovumthe one that retains the fusom The fusom is a spectrinrich regionCytochalasin binhibits actin microfilamentsColchicinesinhibits microtubule polymerization colcemid in humansAmphibian vitellogenesisThe hypothalamus sends a GnRH signal to the follicle cell The follicle cell makes estrogen which goes to the liver The liver makes vitellogenin which goes back to the cell and taken in by the follicle Insect vitellogenesisbrain releases a juvenile hormone from the brain and corpis allatum This goes to the follicle cell The follicle cell gives off ecdysone which goes to the fat body The fat body gives of vitellogenin and goes back to the cell Oligo iso homolecithalequal even yolk distribution small eggs humansMesolecithalmoderately dense yolk stores uneven distribution amphibiansTelolecithal Megalecithallarge yolk stores displaced into a small disc area chicken reptiles dinosaursCentrolecithalyolky eggs nucleus centrally located insects arthropodsAmphibian oocyte productioncontinually producing oocytes and maturing them on seasonal basesHuman oocyte productionreach a peak of about 65 million oocytes then they immediately degenerate at birth Cortical granuleexocytotic contain proteases produced from the golgiReflex ovulationcervical stimulation rabbitsPeriodic ovulationregular cyclic release of oocyte mammalsMensesslothing off of uterine lining
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