Week Five

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3156
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Week Five September 2428In Signal Transduction Pathways there is Always a Cell Surface ReceptorCommon themeoEach spans the cell membrane as well as on the membraneoExtracellular regionoTransmembrane region simple and complexoCytoplasmic domainMode of actionLigand binds extracellular domainConformational shift of receptor occursChange transmitted through transmembrane portion and causes intracellular domain changeActivates some enzymatic activity usually a kinasephosphorylates lipidsThe Generalized SchemeGet notes from AmandaSignal cascadesMultiple endpointsActivation of adormant transcription factorRTK pathwaygeneralized modelLigand causes a dimerization of two receptors with tyrosinekinase residues at the cytoplasmic end Tyrosinekinase becomes phosphorylated and can interact with an adaptor protein in the cytoplasm The adaptor proteins couples with GNRP guanadine nucleotide releasing protein factorg protein GNRP causes phosphorylation of another gprotein called RASWhen it is phosphorylated it is activated and coupled to GTP The RASGTP complex acts as a kinase and phosphorylates RAFRAS needs to be cycled back It is reversible to the inactive RASGDP form is facilitated by a GTP unphosphorylaseGAP RAP MEK and ERK are all kinasesThe transcriptoion factor is then phosphorylated and activated to start transcription It is all one big cascadeVarious different growth factorsFGF EGF stem cell growth factors Mitf Plateletderived growth factors and specific ligand binding
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