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BIOL 1001- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 502 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
A.Hrincevich
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
BIOL 1001
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Defining Life
Dictionary definition of life is:
the quality that distinguishes a vital functioning being from a dead body
Living things are more than the sum of their parts -) life is difficult to define
Certain characteristics define what is technically alive
Characteristics defining LIFE
Structure is complex
Acquire materials & energy from the environment
maintain internal conditions
growth
respond to stimuli
reproduce
capacity to evolve
Living Things Are Both Complex and Organized
Salt: organized but simple (nonliving)
Living Things Are Both Complex and Organized
Oceans: complex but unorganized (nonliving)
Living Things Are Both Organized and Complex
Water flea: complex and organized (living)
Living Things Are Both Organized and Complex
Each level of complexity or structure is based on the one below it
Levels of biological organization in order of least to most complex illustrated in
Figure 1-2
Living Things Respond to Stimuli
Organisms sense and respond to internal and external environmental stimuli
Sensory organs detect and respond to external stimuli
light
sound
chemicals
Plants and bacteria respond to stimuli as well
Light
attraction towards nutrients
Living Things Maintain Internal Conditions
Homeostasis maintence to a relatively constant internal conditions
body temperature
pH of blood
water concentration
Automatic mechanisms maintain homeostasis
Seating in hot weather or during exercise
Metabolizing more food
basking in the sun to raise body temp
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Organisms still grow and charge while maintaining homeostasis
Living Things Acquire and Use Materials and Energy
Materials & Energy required to maintain organization, grow, and reproduce
Important materials (nutrients) acquired from air, water, soil or other living things
Metabolism- is the sum total of all the chemical reactions needed to sustain life
Organisms obtain energy in 2 ways
Autotrophes (make one food)
Heterotrophes (eat others)
All energy that sustains life comes directly
or indirectly from the SUN
Living Things Grow
Every organism becomes larger over time
Organisms grow by producing more cells to increase their mass
Bacterial grow by enlarging their cells and divide to make more individuals
Growth involves the conversion of acquired materials to molecules of the
organism’s body
Living Things Reproduce Themselves
Organisms give rise to offspring of the same type (reproduction)
The parents genetic material (DNA) is passed on to the offspring, creating
continuity of life
Diversity of life occurs because offspring may be genetically different from their
parents
DNA is the Molecule of Heredity
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains segments called genes
DNA is the Molecule of Heredity
An organisms DNA is the molecular instruction manual for operating its body
A copy of the parent’s DNA is made and passed to its offspring in a highly accurate
copying process
Occasional errors in copying (mutation) produces variety
Mutation, and therefore variation, is essential for living things to evolve
Living Things As a Whole Have the Capacity to Evolve
The genetic composition of a whole species changes over many generations
Mutations and variable offspring allow a species to evolve
evolution states that modern organisms descended with modification from pre-existing
life-forms
Natural selection- is a process where organisms with certain adaptations survive and
reproduce more successfully than others
Categorizing Life
Organisms can be grouped into 3 Domains
Bacteria (single, simple celled)
Archaea (single, simple cells, extremes)
Eukarya (one or more highly complex cells)
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