BIOL 1001 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Enzyme, Protein, Photosynthesis

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Biology 1001 1/15/2014 6:01:00 PM
1. What is biology?
A. Bio= “life”
B. Logy= “the study of
C. Biology is the study of life
2. What is life?
A. the quality that distinguishes a vital functioning being from a dead
one and inorganic compounds
B. We define life with a set of characteristics shared by all living
organisms
C. To be alive, an organism must
i Be composed of cells
Has complex, organized structure
The smallest unit is the cell
ii Maintain homeostasis
Homeostasis= to stay the same
Enables organisms to cope with changes in their
environment
iii Respond to stimuli
External stimuli- light, sound, touch, chemicals, etc
Ex: plants grow towards light
Internal stimuli- temperature, pain, chemicals, etc
Ex: your body can detect low blood sugar
iv Use and convert materials and energy
Nutrients: minerals, oxygen, water, other chemical
building blocks
Energy: almost all life is sustained by energy originally
provided by the sun
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy
Living organisms acquire and use materials and
energy- energy flows while nutrient
v Grow
gro
vi Reproduce
vii Evolve
ii.
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Atoms 1/15/2014 6:01:00 PM
Atoms, Molecules and Life Chapter 2
Coming up in this chapter
What Are Atoms?
How Do Atoms Interact to Form Molecules?
Why is Water So Important to Life?
1. Atoms
B the fundamental structural units of matter and are composed of
three types of particles
i. In the nucleus, there are positively charged protons and
uncharged neutrons.
ii. In orbit around the nucleus are negatively charged particles
called electrons.
C Atoms are electrically neutral because their number of protons
and electrons is equal
D Atomic number- The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
E atomic mass of an element is the total mass of its protons,
neutrons, and electrons
Atomic Models
2 Elements
A a substance that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical
reactions. Have unique chemical and physical properties
B At room temperature they can be gasses (ex: hydrogen), liquids
(ex: mercury), or solids (ex: lead)
C There are 92 types of naturally occurring elements
D The atomic number (number of protons) is the defining value for
an element
E All atoms of an element have the same atomic number
i. For example, carbon has six protons, nitrogen has seven
F Diamonds and graphite are both pure carbon, but the arrangements
differ
G These elements compose about 96% of human body weight-
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen & nitrogen
i. These are known as the “building blocks” of life on earth
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3 Isotopes
A Atoms of an element may vary in the number of neutrons they
have in the nucleus
B Variant forms are called isotopes
C Some isotopes are radioactive (meaning that they spontaneously
break apart, forming different atoms and releasing energy) and are
used in research
i. Radioactivity in research: positron emission tomography
(PET) scan. Subject is given the sugar glucose with a
radioactive isotope of fluorine attached, tumor cells use large
amounts of glucose so radioactivity is highest there.
Author Animation: Atomic Structure
4 Electron shells
A Electrons are found in electron shells around the atoms nucleus
B The first shell, or energy level, holds two electrons
C Subsequent shells holds up to eight
D While the nucleus provides stability, the electrons interact with
other atoms (for example, to form chemical bonds)
i. Chemical bonds are the force of attraction between atoms
that holds them together within a molecule
E Electron shell restricted 3D spaces within which electrons orbit
the atomic nucleus
Fig 2.2
F Life depends on electrons capturing and releasing energy
G Electron shells correspond to energy levels
H When energy excites an atom, it causes an electron to jump
from a lower to a higher energy shell
i. Later, the electron falls back into its original shell, releasing
the energy (see fig. 2.3)
I Electrons can absorb and release energy
i. Electricity flows through filament causing heat
ii. Heat bumps electrons into higher-energy electron shells
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