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BIOL 1201 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Covalent Bond, Chemical Polarity, Chemical Formula


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
E William Wischusen
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
BIOL 1201
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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I. Electronegativity
a. Increases as we go left to right on periodic table
b. Noble gases have a electronegativity of 0
c. Increases bottom from top (top is the highest)
II. Bonds
a. Ionic
a.i. Difference is 1.7 or greater
b. Covalent (non-polar)
a.i. Difference is less than 0.5
b. Polar covalent
a.i. Difference is greater than 0.5 but less than 1.7
II. How do bonds influences the polarity of a molecule?
a. Molecules which contain numerous ionic bonds will be polar
b. Molecules which contain numerous polar covalent bonds will be polar (few exceptions)
c. Molecules which contain numerous covalent bonds will be non-polar
II. Weak Bonds
a. Bonds which are NOT involved in making a compound
a.i. Hydrogen bonds
a.i.1. Non-polar molecules group together to get away from water
a.i.2. Weak attractions between atoms on different molecules or different
parts of a large molecule
a.i.3. Occur between molecules that have polar covalent to ionic bonds
a.i.4. ALWAYS involve hydrogen
a.i.5. DOTTED LINES : WEAKER INTERACTIONS (HYDROGEN BONDS)
a.ii. Hydrophobic interactions
a.i.1. Water fearing interaction
a.ii. Van Deer Waals
II. Molecules
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a. The smallest unit of a compound that retains all of the properties of that compound
b. Weight
a.i. Sum of atomic masses for all of the atoms in the molecules
a.i.1. Cx * atomic mass + Hx * atomic mass… etc
a.i.2. Subscript of element x atomic mass + subscript of element x atomic
mass…etc
a.ii. Gram Molecular Weight
a.i.1. Mass of a substance equal to its molecular weight in grams
a.i.2. Constant number of molecules
a.i.3. Avogadro's number
a.i.1.a. 6.022 x 1023
II. Moles & Molecular Concentrations
a. 1 mole = the mass of a substance equal to its gram molecular weight
b. 1 molar solution = a solution containing 1 mole of a substance per 1 liter of solution
I. Compounds
a. A substance consisting of two or more different atoms in specific proportions bonded
together in a specific pattern
II. Isomers
a. Molecules with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of atoms
b. Geometric
a.i. Cis vs. Trans
a.i.1. Fixed in their positions
b. Glucose has 2 forms
a.i. D- form (OH on #5)
a.i.1. Dextrose
a.i.2. Only form your body can use
a.ii. L-form (HO on #5)
II. Dissociation
a. Many molecules come apart when placed in water
b. These molecules break into the constituent ions
a.i. NaCl ------> Na & Cl
II. Acids, Bases , & Salts
a. Acids produce H+ ions
a.i. 1 - 6.9pH
b. Bases produce hydroxide ions
a.i. 7.1 - 14pH
b. Salts produce neither
II. pH
a. A measure of concentration of the hydrogen ion
b. When increasing pH value goes down
c. When decreasing pH value goes up
II. Water
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