[BIOL 1201] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (35 pages long)

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BIOL 1201
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIOLOGY EXAM 2
WEEK 4- WEEK 6
CHEMICAL REACTIONS:
o When two or more atoms, ions, or molecules collide in such a way that they
produce a new substance.
Laws of Thermodynamics:
o First Law
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only converted from one
form to another
o 2nd
When converting energy from one form to another the amount of useful
energy decreases
Spontaneous Reaction Release free energy (exergonic)
o G= -
Non-Spontaneous - Require free energy (endergonic).
o G= +
Change in Free Energy
o G = H -TS
o G= free energy
o H=Enthalpy
o T= temperature
o S= Entropy
Exothermic/endergonic : h change in entropy
o When it gets older….no free energy inreased, it was spontaneous, and it has an
increase in entropy
o = (+) (-TS)
o = (+)(-S)
o = (+)(-)
o You can get an endothermic process that spontaneous
o which of the following reactions will always be spontaneous? Enthalpy
decreases, entropy increases.
o = (-) +
o non spontaneous = enthalpy increase, entropy decrease
Clicker Questions:
o Which of the following conditions most likely to produce a spontaneous
reaction?
Enthalpy decreases; entropy increases
o Lighting the match heat energy is released. Entropy did not decrease, it was
spontaneous. Exergonic is spontaneous.
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G = H -TS
- = (+)(-S)
- = (+) (-)
o Which of the following reactions will always be spontaneous?
Enthalpy decreases, entropy increases
Enzymes
o Competitive Inhibition:
Inhibitor binds to the active site + blocks access to the active site
o Noncompetitive Inhibition:
Inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site + alters the shape of the
active site
o Allosteric Inhibition/ Regulation:
Enzymes alters b/w active + inactive forms
Allosteric other shape, hanges shape y itself
Inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site, and stabilizes one shape
of the enzyme (inactive shape). The inhibitor just holds it in its shape;
stabilizes the enzyme
o Cells
The minimum organization of living matter
The Fluid Mosaic Model:
o Phospholipid Bilayer w/ a mosaic of associated protein
o It moves easily  more than up/down
o Inside is non-polar
o Outside is polar
Cell Coat
Composed of: Glycolipids and glycoproteins
Function: Cell Recognition
Why do cells have membranes?
For struture so things won’t leak out
o Functional Properties:
Maintaining concentrations of molecules and ions
Create free energy gradients
Orient molecules into functional complexes
o Greater concentration gradient is the one that has the
greater difference
Membrane Permeability
Size and shape of the molecule
Solubility in lipids
Net electric charge
Other chemical properties
WATER ALWAYS FREELY PERMEABLE
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