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BIOL 1201 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Chemical Polarity, Hydrogen Atom, Hydrogen Bond

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Study Guide

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BIO1201 Exam 1 Review
Atom smallest unit you can have of one thing while retaining the properties of that
o Subatomic particles protons, neutrons, electrons
Element fundamental units of matter
Molecule smallest unit of a compound that retains all the properties of that compound
Compound a substance made up of two or more different atoms
Isomers molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of
o Ex. D-glucose and L-glucose
o Structural cis vs. trans
Trans fats
o Geometric
o Enantiomers mirror image
Can only occur with a C in the center with four different elements
attached to it
Strong bonds ionic, polar covalent, covalent
o Create new substances
o Responsible for polarity of molecules
o The attraction is constant, therefore the bonds are strong
o Two atoms of the same element will always be covalent
o Two atoms of different elements
Understand electronegativity
Know where the elements are on the periodic table
Weak bonds hydrogen, Van Der Waals form, hydrophobic interactions
o Influence reactions but do not make new substances
o The attraction is inconsistent, therefore the bonds are weak
o Hydrogen bond between molecules that must include a Hydrogen atom
Electronegativity how intense an atom needs an electron
o If difference of electronegativities are:
o >1.7 ionic
o < or = 0.5 covalent
o in between polar covalent
noble gases have electronegativity of 0
if elements are near each other in center of periodic table, most likely a
polar covalent bond
o Covalent
o Like dissolves like
Polar dissolves in polar
Nonpolar dissolves in nonpolar
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