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[BIOL 1202] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 80 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1202
Professor
Dr.Gregg
Study Guide
Midterm

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LSU
BIOL 1202
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
Chapter 22
Evolution- main ideas
o Change over time of genetic comp of a pop
o Decent of organisms with modification from preexisting organisms
Evolutionary adaption
o Accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organism’s
ability to survive in specific environments
Pre Darwinian Theory of Evolution
Lamarck
o Use and disuse
Bodies of living organisms are modified through the uses or
disuse of parts
o Inheritance of acquired characteristics
These modifications are inherited by offspring
o These ideas turned out to be wrong
Evolution by Natural Selection
Darwin and Wallace developed the theory independently
o Darwin- voyage of the Beagle
o Wallace- naturalist in Indonesia
Natural Selection
The unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental
forces, resulting in the preservation of favorable adaptions
Process “selects” from what is available in the gene pool
New characteristics are not created on demand
Mechanism Behind Natural Selection
Variability
Heritability
Differential reproductive success
Think about the 100-m dash track and field competition. How can we change this
race to reflect the process of natural selection?
Hurdles-change in environment
Winning-survival, reproduction
22.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence.
Natural Selection and HIV Resistance
Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC, a patients HIV
population consists almost entirely of 3TC- resistant viruses. How can this
best be explained?
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A few drug resistant viruses were present at the start of the treatment and
natural selection increased their frequency.
Homologous and Analogous Structures
Homologous
o Structures or other attributes in different species that resemble
each other because of common ancestry
Analogous
o Structures that are similar in function but not in structure and
developmental and evolutionary origin
Homologous Structures: Vertebrate Embryos
All vertebrates share similar developmental genes
Difference arise by some genes being switched on or off at varying during
development
Homologous Structures: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
o DNA is universal genetic material
o All life forms use approximately the same 20 amino acids to make proteins
o All use ATP as the primary form of cellular energy
o All use RNA and ribosomes to make protein
Convergent Evolution
o Convergent evolution
o Similarity between 2 organisms, structures, or molecules due to
independent evolution along similar lines rather than descent from a
common ancestor
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