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[BIOL 2051] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (78 pages long)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 2051
Professor
Ginger Brininstool
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
BIOL 2051
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Metabolism
1. Distinguish between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrient elements required in fairly large amounts
Micronutrient element or substance required in trace amounts for normal function of a cell
2. List all 10 macronutrients.
Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium,
sodium
3. Give some examples of micronutrients.
Zinc, selenium, iron
4. How do growth factors differ from macronutrients and micronutrients?
Growth factors are organic compounds needed in very small amounts such as vitamins that are
not found on the periodic table; micro- and macronutrients are found on the periodic table
5. Name the 5 groups describing an organism’s relationship to oxygen.
Obligate aerobes, facultative aerobes (anaerobes), microaerophilic, aerotolerant, obligate
anaerobes
6. What type of broth can be used to determine an organism’s oxygen requirement? What does this broth
contain that makes it possible to determine an organism’s oxygen requirement?
Thioglycolate broth
It contains an oxic layer at the top and an anoxic layer at the bottom
7. You inoculate the following organisms into tubes containing thioglycolate broth. Where would you
expect to see growth in the tube?
Obligate aerobe all in the oxic layer
Obligate anaerobe all at the very bottom in the anoxic zone
Facultative aerobe more in the oxic zone, but many growing in the anoxic zone
Microaerophile in the anoxic zone, but close to the oxic zone
Aerotolerate anaerobe dispersed evenly throughout
8. What accommodations need to be made to grow an aerobe in the lab?
Culture medium must be oxygenated
1. Allow exposure to air
2. Vigorous shaking (250 rpm)
3. Bubble sterile air into the medium
Some microbes need more aeration than can get in a plate with the lid closed
9. What accommodations need to be made to grow an anaerobe in the lab?
Oxygen must be excluded from the culture medium
1. Bottles/tubes completely filled with medium and sealed
2. Use a reducing agent
3. Anoxic jars or glove boxes
The best way to culture them is with a screw cap tube
10. During what process are toxic oxygen molecules generated?
Respiration
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11. How does an organism protect themselves from toxic oxygen molecules?
1. Could selectively not be permeable to the molecule
2. If the cell brings in oxygen at a slower rate, the cell can then use the oxygen in a timely manner
and all toxic intermediates are not released
3. Pigments can absorb toxic oxygen (Staph Epi- white, and Staph Oreous- yellow)
12. What enzyme combinations would detoxify superoxide (O2-)? In what organisms might those
combinations be found?
Superoxide dismutase/catalase obligate aerobes, facultative aerobes
Superoxide reductase obligate anaerobes
13. Where can an organism get nitrogen?
Environment by breathing or eating
14. Name a molecule that requires phosphorus. Where can a cell get phosphorus?
Nucleic acids and phospholipids
Obtained from phosphate minerals and free phosphates
15. Name a molecule that requires sulfur. Where can a cell get sulfur?
Needed to make amino acids cysteine and methionine and other vitamins, iron-sulfur proteins
Obtained rom sulfates (SO2-) or sulfides (S2-)
16. Name a molecule that requires potassium. Where can a cell get potassium?
Needed for some enzymes and used to keep solute concentrations
Obtained from free K+ or K salts
17. Name a molecule that requires magnesium. Where can a cell get magnesium?
Stabilizes ribosomes, membranes, and nucleic acids, and is required by many enzymes
Obtained by salts in various minerals
18. Name a molecule that requires iron. What specialized molecule allows some organisms to sequester
iron? What are two examples of siderophores?
Needed for ETC proteins
Siderophore (molecules bind iron and transport it into the cell)
Examples:
Enterobactins
E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium
Sequester the limited iron supply in animal tissue to initiate infection
Aquachelin
A peptide sticks out into the environment and iron can bind to it
19. Name a structure that requires calcium. Where can a cell get calcium? (See Table 5.1)
Endospores calcium dipicolinic acid complexes; stabilizes cell walls
20. Name a structure that requires sodium. Where can a cell get sodium? (See Table 5.1) Can sodium
motive force (instead of a proton motive force) be used by some organisms to generate ATP?
Used by Na+ powered ATP synthase; stabilizes cells walls
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