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Study Guide

[BIOL 2160] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (20 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 2160
Professor
Cross- Eyed
Study Guide
Midterm

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LSU
BIOL 2160
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PHYSIOLOGY?
Physiology (function) and anatomy (structure).
o Form dictates function. How a molecule is shaped determines the job that it does.
Even if you unintentionally change the shape, you’re going to change the
function.
Levels of Physiological Organization:
o Molecules: ATP, water, and neurotransmitter receptors.
Two or more atoms form a chemical bond
o Cells: neurons and epithelial cells.
Building blocks of all living things, smallest living thing is a single-celled
organism.
Living things: able to produce energy, able to reproduce, able to evolve.
Virus is nonliving; nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat. (no cells)
o Tissue: nervous tissue and muscle tissue.
Groups of cells working together, physically and functionally connected.
o Organs: heart and liver.
o Organ Systems: cardiovascular and gastrointestinal.
4 major cell/tissue types:
o Neurons/nervous tissue: (motor neurons, cortical interneurons, etc.). Specialized
for sending and receiving information.
**communication**
o Muscle cells/muscle tissue: (cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, etc.). Specialized
for contraction.
All muscle cells contract and they MUST contract to survive.
Atrophy: when muscle tissue begins to die due to the fact it hasn’t
contracted in a long time.
Building muscle helps keep fat off your body because muscle requires
more energy to maintain then fat.
Uses ATP and calories to make energy.
Fat doesn’t require energy because it is energy.
o Epithelial cells/epithelial tissue: (intestinal epithelial cells, etc.). found on
organs, glands, and lining body cavities.
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Exchanging materials across a surface; includes skin, lining of organs,
glands
GLANDS:
Endocrine: secrete molecules (usually hormones) directly into the
blood stream. i.e. pancreatic and thymus glands.
o Skin has dead skin cells, helps prevent pathogens because
they need a blood supply, only get blood supply by going
into body.
Exocrine: utilize a duct. Secrete molecules into a body cavity, or
to the exterior of the body. i.e. stomach, salivary, sweat glands.
o Do not directly enter the bloodstream.
o Connective tissue: (bone cells, blood cells, fat cell, cartilage, etc.). characterized
by very few cells and lots of extracellular materials.
Ligaments: bone to bone
Sprain: tare in a ligament (more painful and slower to heal)
Tendons: bone to muscle.
What does the body do?
o
Homeostasis
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